Project Newsletter – Volume 1


Number 1

Number 2

Number 3

Number 4

Number 5

Number 6

Number 7

Number 8


Number 8

A to Z of PLACE-NAMES IN ROATH (Continued)

Barry’s Croft

A field of 4 acres of customary land “of the greater tenure” in the lordship of Roath.1542. C.R.V 340

Bawdaline Acre

A field of 5 acres within the manor of Spital and lordship of Roath.1666. C.R.V 340.

Behind the Walls

Place in the lordship of Roath (1492). Same seems to be referred to in the Accounts of 1542 as a tenement containing 11 acres of land lying ‘byneth the waie’. C.R.V 340.


Three roods of pasture in the lordship of Roath (1492). C.R.V 341.


Heath Enclosure Award 1809 mentions the site of a house so called, bounded on the South by the Newport Road, and the East by Court-bach, near Roath village. It seems to be identical with Llys-du, of which the name ‘Black hall’ is the translation” – C.R.V 341.

Land Tax assessments show separate assessments for Blackhall and Ty Mawr until c.1791 –

1788 for Blackhall 1789/90 for Blackhall
Owner : Captn. Richard. Owner: John Morgan
Occ: Mrs Howard. Occ: Wm. Howard
Rent.valn.: 2/6d. Rent.valn.: 2/6d
Tax: 6d. Tax: 6d

Later Land Tax assessments show the corresponding property separately assessed (but not named) under “Ty Mawr’. Therefore, despite what J.H.M. says, the Land Tax evidence suggests that Blackhall (Llys du) and Ty Mawr“ were not one and the same property.

Black Pool (in Welsh, Pwll-du).

A fishing place in the lordship of Roath. C.R.V 341.


Also occurs as Brendon, Brundon, Brinder and possibly same as Briagdom.

1492: – Ministers’ Accounts – Certain lands in lordship of Roath.

1542: – called Brandon.

J.S.Corbett’s annotated map shows Brundon Lands as lying on Roath Moor, south-east of the G.W.Railway, north of the Splot, with a lane called Brundon Way bordering them on the south. C.R.V 342.

1789: – A map of Roath of this year shows south of Longcross “Briagdom Lane”.

1809: – Heath Enclosure Award. Brinden Lane.

The Brinder Lane. South of Longcross House (1835) – C.R.V p.343.


The wide street which leads from Clifton Street, Roath eastward to join Newport Road near the railway bridge. Until 1875 it was known as Green Lane. Shown on a map of 1789 as the Portway, it was an ancient road providing an alternative route from Cardiff to rejoin the main highway near Pengam.

In common with all Welsh parishes, Roath had several field names beginning with “cae” and its dialect forms, which creates same difficulty when it comes to indexing alphabetically.  An added difficulty is that the photocopy of the Tithe Apportionment held by the Society is not consistently clear.  The Welsh language at least has the advantage of having distinct words to denote an enclosed field (“cae”) and an open field (“maes”), the latter also denoting a meadow, moor or down.

Professor Gwynedd O. Pierce on page 337 of “The Place-names of Dinas Powis Hundred” (U.W.P.,1965. Cardiff) refers to the two main dialect forms of “cae” in the area:-

(i) ca > (kae) represented by non-Welsh scribes in various forms such as kay, kaye, caie etc., and

(ii) ca, the reduced form of ca itself. The plural form caeau occurs as caia, kaya, kaia etc….generally with _au > _a.”

The fact that English scribes tend to be careless in distinguishing between “cae’r” (field of) and “caer” (fort, fortress, earthwork fortification etc.) does not help.  As Lewis’s “Topographical Dictionary” (1833) mentions several mounds or earthworks in the vicinity, it could well be that one or two of the “cae’r” place-names listed below should be “caer”. I must leave these problems to the toponymists; meanwhile I have taken the liberty of suggesting English equivalents for most of the Welsh field names in Roath for the benefit of non-Welsh speaking members like myself, but I would welcome comments and corrections from Welsh speaking readers.

The number of the plot in the 1840 Tithe Apportionment Schedule and Plan is given where appropriate.

Key to Owners in Tithe Apportionment:

  1. Marquess of Bute

C.W.     Charles Crofts Williams

  1. Thos .Wn. Edwards

E.E.       Edwards Edmund

J.W.      John Wood

  1. Sir Charles Morgan

M.C.     Mrs Mary Charles

M.W.    Wn Mark Wood

Cae Abbot        M          289       Abbot’s close

Caeau-Erwon                              The Acre Closes-two tenements in Roath

1600 – C.R. V. page 344

Cae Bach           M          168       little

Cae Caled         B          311      hard, dry

Cae Cenol         B          310       middle

Cae Crwn          M          328       round

Cae dan Ty        B           298       below house

Cae duhwntr’ Ty M       325       beyond house

Cae ferin Pen    B          304       ?.(in Pen-y-lan)

Cae Filer            M          283       pers. name ? or fiddler, minstrel ?

Cae Ffynnon     B           301       well, spring

Cae Garw          CW       191/192 rough

Cae gona (?gorra) B      307       best

Cae Hir              B          91         long

Cae Mawr         M          101       big

Cae Mawr Pella M         100       furthest big

Cae o flaen Ty  M         324       in front of house

Cae Pant           B           254       hollow

Cae Penlon       E           358      head (of lane ?) if Pen-lan, top of hill (Plot in Lower Llwyn-y-grant)

Cae Picca           B           238       pointed

Cae Picca           M          32         pointed

Cae Porth          E           338       gate

Cae Pwdwr        M          318       valueless

Cae Pwll            B           247       pool, pit

Cae Seth           B           9           ?

Cae Shed           MW      384/385 –

Cae Sion Meurig                         “John Merikescroft” A close in the lordship of Roath 1440 C.R.V                                                        p.346

Cae Twc

The Tuck Close.  A piece of pasture land, 8 acres in extent in the parish of Roath.  According to the Heath Enclosure Award 1809, it was a messuage and farm camprising a little over 10 acres, adjoined to the land of Maindy farm and was bounded on one side by the road leading from Roath village to the Caerphilly Road (C.R.V p.347)

Cae Ty Coch      B           255       red house

Caer Bach         EE         280

little “fort” or, if form of “cae”, little field.  A plot of 5 acres in the Pen-y-lan area which shows up prominently on a copy of the Tithe Map coloured in to indicate land ownership, as an “island” plot of arable land surrounded by the land of Sir Charles Morgan.  It was the only plot in the parish owned by Edwards Edmund and an entry is inserted, possibly as an omitted item, at the end of the Apportionment, out of the normal alphabetical run of owners. The”occupier”, rather uninterestingly was the leaseholder at the time, of most of the Morgan land, Miss Jennett Morgan.  It is included in the portion of the Tithe Map reproduced Vol.1l. No.4. post p.30 where I have shown it, perhaps erroneously in the Key as “Cair bach”. As far as can be identified the location would be in the area of present Mafeking Road, the ground-landlord of which, later became the Roath Court Estate and not, as one would expect, the Tredegar Estate.

Cae’r Bant         MW      387       ? of the hollow

Cae’r Duon        M          286       –

Cae’r Eglwys      M          166

church field 6 acres 3 roods arable Pt.Great House. Occ: Wm. Evans Jnr.(Tithe 1840) Land Tax Asst.1788: Owner John Morgan. Occ: Mrs Howard. Rental.£€4.9s. Tax.17/10d.Same changes of owners & occupiers as Ty Mawr.

Cae’r Wain        JW       232/235/236     moor ?

Cae’r Bant         MW      387                    –

Caen Duon        M          286                    black ?? layer.

In Land Tax Asst. 1788 occurs as Caia Duon.  Owner: Wm. Morgan. Occ: John Morgan. Rental £3.9s.3d. Tax 17/10d.

Cae Ysgubor     B           299                    barn (Pen-y-lan)

Caia Girwen                                             Land

Tax Asst.1785: Owner Thos. Thomas. 1786: Late Thos. Thomas. Both years occ.= Rchd.  Phillpotts. Rental: 13/10d. Tax:2/8d. Possibly same as Caeau  Erwon (see above) Caia Otton.  Land Tax 1794: Owner: Sir Chas.Morgan. Occ: Mrs Morgan. Rental £3.9s.3d. Tax: 17/10d.

Cair Bach          EE         280                    little. see Caer Bach.

Caeur Caen       M          288                    -? ? surface Castell

See Pump Erw’r Castell


A house at the entrance of Roath Court Lane {1801). C.R.V p.351. Referred to in correspondence W.M. 30.4.1935: “Was there a castle at Roath, Cardiff ?” Letter states “A Glamorgan County Report of 1801 refers to a certain house belonging to Charles Morgan, Esq., called Castell-y-Wy at the entrance of Roath Court Lane.” Castle Road.

An important road, or rather street, leading northward from the Newport Road to Crwys Road. It took its name in 1874 from “Roath Castle” (as Plas-newydd was then styled) but had previously been known as Heol-y-Plwea or Plwcca Lane.

Cefn-Coed                                   The Woody Ridge

A long, low hill to the north-east of Cardiff, lying in the parishes of Roath and Llanishen, and terminating South-east with the spur called “Pen-y-lan”. The name is applied particularly to a farm half way along the summit.  There is also Cefn-coed Fach slightly to the North-west and Cefn Coed Uchaf near the northern end of the ridge.  Heol-y-Cefn-coed is called after this hill, pronounced locally “Kingcode” and may be recognised in the surname of Adam Kyngot, occurring in the municipal charter c.1331….C.R. V. p.352.

Chapel Farm                               In Pen-y-lan.

Perhaps the same as Capel Denys or Ty r- capel. C.R. V. p.353.

Church & churchyard    174       –

Chwech Erw Islaw Y Cawsy.       The Six Acres below the Causeway.

A field in Roath mentioned in the Heath Enclosure Award 1809. C.R. V. p.353.

Clerk’s House, The.

In the parish of Roath near the church and mill (Heath Encl. ‘ Award 1809) C.R.V p.354

Clifton Street

The oldest shopping street in Roath. Name changed from “Connection Street” in 1868. See articles on Street Names to appear in future issues of Newsletters.

Coed Ffranc.                               The Frenchman’s Wood.

N.E. of Pen-y-lan. C.R. V.p.354.

Coed-y-Cocsi (Coed-y-Coxy )     A wood on the hill near Cefn-coed farm, in the manor of Roath.                                                      C.R.V p.355

Coed-y-Milwr                              The Soldier’s Wood. N.E. of Pen-y-lan. C.R.V p.356.

Coir Felin          M          275       mill

Coir Hendy       B           312       old house

Corner , the Couresmede          Mc        75         –

A piece of land in lordship of Roath 1440. Possibly identical with Sourland or Cowmede C.R.V p.357

Cowmede                                   See Couresmede

Croft                  E           351       –

Croft y Gynor    M          113/114   huntsman ? (gynorion) or pers. name.

Could possibly be “Croft-y-Gynon” – such a name appears on p.32 of G.T.Clark’s Genealogies of Glamorgan, but very doubtful if there is any link.  Clark shows that Mary, daughter of Wn. Thomas of Llanbradach married (as her 2nd husband) Wn.Lewis of “Croft-y-Ginae”, which is taken to be “Croft-y-Gynon”.

Cross Cottage

An old cottage at the S.E. corner of Cefn-coed Lane and the Merthyr Road (now Pen-y-lan Road and Albany Road). Demolished 1899.

Crwys Bychan                             (Small Cross)

was in the parish of St.John and was demolished in 1899, the site being occupied by Gladstone Rd. Schools.

Crwys Mawr (Big Cross)

was a tenement situate same distance to the east of Crwys Bychan, nearer Roath village.  It disappeared so long ago that its position can only be guessed at. C.R. V. p.360.

Crwys Road

A wide thoroughfare forming a continuation of Castle Road northward across the Rhymney Railway to join the North Road at Pentre, Whitchurch. It takes its name from Crwys Bychan. C.R.V p.360

Curt                              See “Which Erw’r Curt”.

Cutler Acre

An acre of meadow in the lordship of Roath destroyed by flood in 1492.  It was doubtless the perquisite of the lord’s cutler.  Also Cutler’s Close (1737). C.R.V p.360


Occurs (as last entry) Land Tax assessments 1784 and 1785.  Owner:Wyndham Lewis Esq., Occ: Wm.Thomas. For years 1788 to 1790, Owner: Richard Jenkins Esq., Occ: Wm. Thomas. Rental: £1.10s. Tax: 6s.

Cwrt Bach

According to J.H.M., C.R.V p.361 “Also called Roath Court Farm.  An old farmhouse on the opposite side of the lane (now Albany Road) to Roath Court, between that and Llys-Du.” while Dean’s Farm is described by J.H.M. as “Another name for Roath Court Farm, otherwise Cwrt Bach”.  If this is correct, Cwrt Bach = Court Farm = Dean’s Farm = Great Barn = Skibor Vawr = Roath Court Farm Roath Keynsham Survey of 1702 show it to be a tenement of the manor in the parish of Roath called Court Bach…”now in the tenure of Joseph Meredith, is mearing and bounding unto the highway leading from Roath mill, the Customary land of the Lord of the Manor, now in the tenure of Joseph Meredith, the Lands of George Howel, Esq., now in his own tenure on all parts and sides thereof; and it is part of the said Lordship.”

The title deeds are included in a bundle of deeds (1657 – 1712) in the Blandy-Jenkins ( Llanharan Estate) papers (G.R.O. D/D.BJ.316/324) relating to several properties purchased from the Powell family by Richard Hoare Jenkins and, presumably, by others of the Jenkins family.  The G.R.O. Calendar of deeds shows it as “Court Bach in Roath Keynsham manor in Roath.”  Incidentally, the relevant deed is not available to researchers because of its fragile condition.

If “Roath Bridge”, referred to in the 1702 Survey is Rumey Bridge, the site of the Cwrt Bach land at that date fits the location of two plots north of the highway in the 1840 Tithe Map and Apportionment, which shows:

Plot 162:” Dwy Erw Cwrt bach”. (i.e.Two acres of the Small Court) 3 acres 6 perches statutory measure of arable, and

Plot 163: “Waun Cwrt bach” (i.e. Meadow of the Small Court) 10 acres 3 roods of pasture.  Both plots are shown in the Tithe Apportionment as part of the land of the Great House, owned by Sir Charles Morgan and occupied by W. Evans, Junior.  In David Stewart ’s Survey and Atlas of the Bute Estate of 1824 (G.R.O. D/OB E.1.) Map No.8 is of Dean’s Farm and its land on Pengam Moors.  The principal tenant was William Evans farming 119 acres, 15 of which were salt marsh plots on Pengam Moors.

In addition there were various small tenanted plots of salt marsh and meadow on the moors and adjoining Rumney Causeway, bringing the total holding to 165 acres. The Tithe Apportionment (Plot 175) shows the homestead of Dean’s Farm as owned by Bute and occupied by Wm. Evans (Senior) with 117 acres of detached land on various plots south of the highway, between Splott and Pengam, stretching to the foreshore.  The Tithe Map shows that the farmstead itself which was in the village of Roath stood on a croft which constituted a small “island” of Bute land.

Land Tax Assessments show “Court Bach” to be in the ownership of Hon. Charles Morgan and in occupation of Elizabeth Evan 1782, 1783 and 1785.  In 1788 the owner is given as John Morgan, Esq., and the occupier as Mrs Llewellyn.  By 1791, the occupier had changed to Thomas Humberstone, who was still there in 1795 when Sir Charles Morgan was the owner.

The rental for Land Tax purposes remained unchanged from 1782 to 1795 at £2.5s., the tax charged being 9s. each year.  Separate Land Tax assessments were made however on “Court Farm”, which must have been a substantial land-holding with a rental valuation of £34.8s.4d. (Tax:£6.7s.8d).

From 1788 to 1791 the owner of Court Farm was Sir Herbert Mackworth and in 1791 it was Lady Mackworth.  Throughout the whole of this period the occupier was a Mr Philpott.  The Census Returns show the Great Barn (Skibor Vawr) as occupied by Thomas Evans (Senior), age 71, in 1841 and Thomas Evans, age 24, in 1851, farming 20 acres.

Cyndda (variously spelt).

Also occurs as Cymdda and Cymla Bach. A small thatched house on the side of Pen-y-waun Road on the corner of Ninian Road, by Roath Park.  Name means “the Common”.  In 1653 it was described as a messuage and land, partly common in the manor of Llystalybont.  It was blown down in a storm in 1895.  The Tithe Apportionment shows it to have been part of Pen-y-Wain Farm estate.  Plot 249: 6 acres 2 perches of meadow owned by the Marquess of Bute and occupied by Edward Richards.

The Case of



One of the best known features of Tudor social history is the land-grabbing of the gentry, who used towards this object a variety . of means, among them inheritance, purchase, sequéstration of church property, forcible entry, the kidnapping of heirs and marriage.  This note is concerned with an attempted marriage which never materialised, but resulted in a lawsuit preserved in the Chancery Proceedings in the Public Record Office, which affords an insight into the Carne family’s pursuit of social eminence in Glamorgan.  Foremost of the families concerned are the Mathews, whose ancestral origins are lost in legendary antiquity.  Their tombs remain in Llandaff Cathedral: Sir Christopher with his wife in the Lady Chapel ; the giant Sir David in his armour by the high altar.  Far below them in the social structure come the Bawdrips of Penmark, whose native village near Bridgewater boasted an Adam de Baggetripe in the reign of Edward 1, and whose name occurs in a Cardiff charter of 1358.  Lower again are the Raglans of  Carnllwyd in the valley of Nant Carfan, whose name first occurs about 1411.  Yet all these were of an assured standing in the Vale of Glamorgan compared to the family of Carne.

In the mid-fifteenth century Howel Carne of Cowbridge married the heiress of Alexander Giles of Nash : his son and grandson returned to the  ancestral land of Gwent for their wives; the latter, also Howel. achieving a match with Cecil Kemeys of Newport. Howel’s increasing prosperity is traceable in the documents printed in Clark’s Cutae : he leased sixty-three acres in 1503, forty-six more in 1528, he achieved the alienation of the freehold of Nash Manor in 1521 from the absentee Bishop of Llandaff and confessor to Catherine of Aragon, George de Athequa.  Primogeniture would secure these lands to his son Richard ; his second son Edward was studying law in Oxford; in 1529 he settled a dowry on his daughter Margaret, who was to marry Thomas Raglan of Llysworney in 1535, of forty marks, six oxen, twenty-four kine and a bull.

Sir Edward Carne’s legal talents took him far in the affairs of the sovereigns of Europe, but he did not disdain to follow the family tradition in matrimonial matters.  After his return from Rome he leased the priory of Ewenny in 1536 and in that or the following year he married.  His bride was the widow of Sir John Raglan of Carnllwyd : her jointure included Carnllwyd, Lidmore and Shorelands, and the marriage was followed by the usual legal battles to obtain possession of disputed property. In 1538 ‘Edward Karne gentleman and Lady Anne his wife” were asserting their right to the manor of Lidmore ; in 1542 “Edward Carn knight and Ann his wife” were attempting to force Thomas Raglan, heir of Sir John by his first wile to “render to then a reasonable dower out of the freehold which the said John Raglan had in Seynt ffagans, Seynt Mighell supr. Eley, Seynt Georgis, Lantwytt, Talavan, Llanblethian, Landaff, Pentirgh and Taleyegarne.”

The Families of Mathew, Bawdripe, Carn and Raglan

It is now necessary to consider the Bawdrips.  Their lands were mainly around Penmark, and they had marriage ties with the Giles family of Gileston and also with the Raglans. Thomas Bawdrip of Penmark had achieved a link with the Mathews when he married Catherine Mathew of Llandaff.  Their child, William Bawdrip, was the defendant in the lawsuit now to be considered.  As only two sheets of parchment survive, details are unfortunately lacking, but the main facts are clear, When Thomas Bawadrip died, the inquisition post mortem on his property was granted in 1538 to Carne, Arnold Butler and Edmund Turner. Something must have gone wrong with this procedure, as another entry in the Patent Roll of May 26th, 1540 grants a similar commission to Carne, James Button and Christopher Fleming.  Again, the results are not known, but Carne claimed that he had been given custody of Thomas’s heir, William Bawdrip, on June 9th, 1543.

The position of William Bawdrip was thus: on the one side were his mother’s relations, the Mathews, anxious to preserve the Bawdrip lands in the family’s possession : on the other, Carne, a “new-rich”, ambitious and not very scrupulous lawyer : a Master in Chancery, one who had the ear of HenryVIII. Carne claimed that he “often tymes at wenny in the said County of Glamorgan offred unto the said willym Bawderype, being of age, a competent maryage that is to say Elizabeth Carne doughtr of Richard Carne Esquyer.”

But the Bawdrip stamina was good, and by some means young William withstood the pressure put on him, got away, and, to quote the indignant Carne once more, “the said willym Bawderipe dyd not only refuse but aftrward that is to say aboute the month of August in this ye same xxxvijth yere of Or said Soveryne lord in the said County of Glamorgan to one Margaret. Mathew daughtr of George Mathew esquyre maryed himself, contrary to the form of the Statut, in that case provydyd.” The dates provide a clue to the events. When Carne obtained custody of William Bawdrip as his ward, he was Sheriff of Glamorganshire, the first to hold that office by the Act. of Union ; but in 1544 he had been appointed Ambassador to the Netherlands.  His absence from the country must have proved highly satisfactory to the Bawdrip-Mathew clan.

Carne’s spiteful reaction to the marriage of William and Margaret was to move for an action in the Court of Chancery on the grounds that he was “one of the masters admytted in this honrable court of Chancery and also hath other busynes on the kinges affayres to do and resortyth lytle or nothing now unto the said Shire of Glamorgan where this matter is suable.” (P.R.O. C.1/1112 fol. 4).  It would be natural to expect William Bawdrip to quail before the prospect of appearing before an aggrieved K.C. in his own court, but he was well served by his lawyers.  His reply (P.R.O. C.1/1112 fol. 5) is written in a straggly script with weak ink, but it opens with a firm denial of the competence of the royal court which has an air of the seventeenth rather than the mid-sixteenth century: “The said Willm saith that the said bill of complaynt is incerten and insuffycyent in the lawe to be inquirid into and the matter therein contayned yf yt were true as it is not yet it is matter determynable by the due order and courte of common lawe and not in this honourable courte.”

At this point the evidence ends, so that it is impossible to state the outcome of the case.  William and Margaret must have been well suited to each other.  Among Margaret’s twenty-three brothers and sisters was Edmund, who cast ‘“Ordnaunce at his ffurnace necre Cardiff in Wales” and organised gun-running to Spain, then at war with England, while the Mathew women could shoulder a gun with the men in defence of Radyr Court.  The Bawdrip children of this marriage, Miles and Thomas, appear regularly in the Elizabethan court records: Miles was accused of assault in 1586, both were  implicated in a murder in 1687, and Thomas took part in a shooting affray in High Street in 1696. To readers of this magazine, published within the manor of Splott, it may be of interest to note that the manor was acquired by William Bawdrip about 1550, and that his son Thomas built ‘‘a fair house” there about 1596. In that house the writer of this article was born.

J. M. Cleary