Vol 3 No 1: Roath Probate Inventories 1600 – 1700, Roath Keynsham – an undated rental, Plasnewydd Presbyterian Church – early history, Notes on Llanedeyrn.

Note: this webpage omits some of the pictures and tables that were in this edition of the Project Newsletter.  To see the full content please download the pdf version of this Project Newsletter.  Here’s the link.

CONTENTS

Roath Probate Inventories 1600 – 1700 – D.J.P.Childs

Glossary of inventory terms

Roath Keynsham – an undated rental

Plasnewydd Presbyterian Church – early history

Notes on Llanedeyrn – D.J.P.Childs

ROATH PROBATE INVENTORIES 1600 – 1700

Continuing the theme of earlier Newsletters (Vol.2. pp.42-48) on the subject of probate records, the following article will concentrate mainly on inventories whose value for illuminating social and economic life in the early modern period has long been recognised by historians.

Inventories are itemised lists comprising not only personal and household goods left by the deceased but also intangible assets, such as debts owed to him and leases.  They were drawn up by impartial appraisors (usually friends or neighbours) for the twofold purpose of ascertaining the ‘ad valorem’ duty payable to the ecclesiastical court and to protect the deceased’s personal representatives against allegations of fraud. (e.g. failure to disclose the full extent and value of effects or wasting the assets of the deceased to the detriment of the beneficiaries).

Appendix 3 gives a transcription of the inventory of Blanch Lewis, 1689.

Inventories normally take the following format. The person’s wearing apparel is usually listed first but is rarely specified. Details of household goods, including on occasion ‘ready money’, are

then given, and this is followed by a breakdown of the deceased’s farm stock – livestock and corn. Finally, debts or bonds owing to the deceased are sometimes listed as are leasehold interests, the latter category being usually excluded from any statistical analysis.  Moreover, if we are lucky, properties are identified, precise locations given and a room by room survey is described in the

document.  It is the latter aspect that shall be dealt with first although other features will also be highlighted.

PROPERTIES MENTIONED AND LOCATABLE

In Roath we can identify with reasonable certainty only three properties from the 16 inventories and associated wills – Pengam, Splott and Ty Mawr. (See Appendix 1).

  1. PENGAM

In the 17th century this was the principal abode of members of the Meredith family, who were ubiquitous in the Roath locality and are the subject of a study currently being undertaken by Judith Hunt.  We have three wills where the testators are stated as being of Pengam:-

(i) Thomas Meredith (Prerogative Court of Canterbury will of 1654)

(ii) William Meredith 1694 – son of (i) above

(iii) Mary Meredith 1694 – wife of (ii) above.

J.Hobson Matthews described Pengam as “an ancient farmhouse on the margin of Roath Moor, a little to the south of the high road to Newport”. It was situated in the south-east of the parish near the river Rhymney. The farmhouse which was demolished c.1935, stood close to the present Rover Way where Cardiff airport once was. According to the tithe schedule (1840), it consisted of same 218 acres.

  1. SPLOTT

In the 17th century this was the principal abode of the Bawdripp family, whose ancestors had been lessees in the area since the 13th century.  As well as leasing Splott, they had also come to hold Odyn’s Fee or Penmark Place in the Vale of Glamorgan. We have copies of wills

of :-

(i) William Bawdripp (P.C.C.) 1627

(ii) Katherine Bawdripp 1658 – wife of (i) above

(iii) Anthony Mathew 1697 – nephew of (i) and (ii) above.

According to J.Hobson Matthews, both Penmark Place and Splott were sold to Sir Edward Lewis of the Van in about 1626.  It is clear however that William and his wife continued to live in Splott after this time, because William is described in his P.C.C. will of 1627 as being “of Splotte’.

They were presumably leaseholders of Sir Edward Lewis, because when Katherine Bawdrep ‘of the Splot’ made a will in 1658, she bequeathed ‘one Lease of the Demise of William Lewis Esquier’ dated 2nd February 1649 for “fourscore – and Nineteen years” to her nephew Anthony Mathew, gentleman.  This lease comprised ‘all that Messuage conteyning thirtie foure acres more or lesse in the parishes of Roath and St. Maries’. Anthony was chief beneficiary as William and Katherine had no surviving children, their only son Thomas having died young.

 

  1. TY MAWR or LLYS DDU or GREAT HOUSE

The Stradlings of Roath appeared in the parish towards the end of the 16th century, originating in the person of Edward Stradling, an illegitimate son of Sir Edward Stradling of St Donat’s (d.1535). Edward married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Robert Raglan of Llantwit Major, which is no doubt how he came to hold the estates in Llantwit, which, together with those in Roath, are specified in a deed of 1612.  Their eldest son was Lambrook, an unusual name which appears in successive generations.  Lambrook (died 1612) in turn married Ann (a daughter of Henry Mathew of Radyr), whose nuncupative will dated 5th April, 1639, is the earliest we have for this family in the parish.

The principal beneficiary of Ann’s will was Edward, ‘her only sonne and Heyre’. His will of 1670 gives all land at the time of his death to his daughter, another Ann.  It is known however that Edward had other children, one of whom was (another) Lamrook/Lambroke/Lamrook/Lamerock, and it is clear that he must have benefitted from gifts of land made by his father while the latter was still alive.  Lambrook in turn was the father of Blanch Lewis.

Where the Stradlings lived in Roath is uncertain, although Mr J.Barry Davies (Newsletter Vol.1.pp.59,61 & 66) has suggested that it could have been the property known as Ty Mawr.  This house stood behind St. Margaret’s Church in Sturminster Road and was demolished in 1969 to make way for an old people’s home which bears its name.

Turning to the inventories in particular, these are especially important for giving us an insight into the ways in which people made living:

DUAL EMPLOYMENT – TRADE + MANUFACTURING

BY-EMPLOYMENT – The information contained in the inventories underlines the agrarian basis of society but it is usual to find in community studies of this kind same evidence of by-employment – i.e. subsidiary employment – secondary to the main occupation. Unfortunately such evidence is wanting in Roath.

TRADE + MANUFACTURING

As well as the apparent absence of dual employment, there is no inventory of any person described as a trader, craftsman, manufacturer or in fact any non-farming occupation.  That such people existed in the area at this time is evident however from other sources.  The 1650 manorial survey for Roath Keynsham for instance refers to the corn grist mill situated on Roath Brook.

Moreover, that a forge was located in Roath is apparent from the will of William Meredith (1694) which mentions one ‘neere the fower Elms’.  I believe that the white building presently standing on the opposite side of the lane from the Four Elms public house was once a smithy.*

An ale keeper or publican is also known to have been present in 17th century Roath – a debt of 3s. was owed by Rowland Johnes, a Roath testator in 1636, to Robert John of Roath, alekeeper. ‘…..and if hee (i.e. Robert John) doth saie it is more I desire hee should be paid more’.  One wonders whether Rowland Johnes’s memory had been impaired by alcohol to the extent that he could not remember how much he owed!

No doubt, pedlars, hawkers and other itinerant travellers were passing through the village regularly on their way to or from Cardiff.

* Editorial Note: A smith’s shop and two cottages are shown on the 1840 Tithe Plan (Plot No 60) at Four Elms between Newport Road and Green Lane (Broadway) on the corner of a road which was to became Connection Street and later Clifton Street.

(For map see Project Newsletter Vol.2. pp.99 – 100).

PREDOMINANCE OF FARMING

The importance of agriculture in the lives of nearly all the parishioners in the 17th century is shown in the following table:

MALE                 FEMALE

Total number of inventories                                                         12                      4

£                        £

Total value                                                                                     775.25               547.30

Mean value                                                                                    64.60                 136.82

Median value                                                                                 45.20                 135.08

Investments as a % of the total

%                       %

Household                                                                                      16.3                   22.1

Debts/Credits                                                                                 8.8                     4.4

Crops/Arable                                                                                  13.3                   25.9

Stock                                                                                               61.6                   47.6

Investment in Farmstock

%                       %

Farmstock as proportion of total value                                       74.9                   73.5

Crops as proportion of farmstock                                                 16.31                 24.15

Stock as proportion of farmstock                                                 83.68                 75.85

The important part played by farming in the life of the local community is borne out by the investment in farmstock as a proportion of the total value of the inventories.  The documents show that in Roath nearly 75% of a person’s estate was devoted to farmstock, and of this same 83% was devoted to livestock husbandry.

INVESTMENT IN ARABLE AND LIVESTOCK FARMING

Testator                         Status*                           Year                   Livestock           Arable       % of total

farm stock

£. S.d.                £ s.d.

Rowland Johnes            Y                        1636                  27. 0.0               1.10.0                5.3

Ann Stradling                W                      1639                  103. 1.0             26.13.0                           20.5

Llewellin Jenkin             Y                        1639                  22.17.0                           7.12.0                25.0

Lewis Johnes                  Y                        1643                  16.19.3                           4. 0.0.                19.1

Edward Thomas                         –                        1679                  27. 4.4               6.13.4                19.6

Meredith Morgan         –                         1682/3              35.19.2                           6. 3.4.                14.6

Blanch Meredith           W                      1684                  42.0.0                14.10.0                           25.7

Thomas Griffith             –                         1684                  13. 4.0               4. 1.0                 23.5

William Miles                –                         1685                  29.19.0                           2. 0.0                 6.3

Myles Thomas               Y                        1686                  35. 0.0.                           5.10.0                13.6

Edward Lewis                G                       1688                  28.15.0                           12. 0.0              29.4

Blanch Lewis                  W                      1689                  99. 5.0               100.15.0              50.4

Phillip Williams                          Y                        1691                  80. 0.0               16. 0.0              16.7

William Meredith          G                       1694                  129. 8.0             38. 0.0              22.7

Mean value = 20.9

Median value = 20.1

* G = Gentleman, Y = Yeoman W = Widow

 

LIVESTOCK

Of the livestock were:

CATTLE AND HORSES

Numbers kept                                                      Incidence

Cattle                Horses

1-5                                                            –                         12

6-10                                                          5                        –

11-20                                                        4                        –

Over 20                                                    7                        –

Total numbers specified                         335                    35

Unspecified number entries                   2                        2

SIZE OF SHEEP FLOCKS

Size                    Incidence

1 – 10                 3

11-20                 1

21-40                 1

41-60                 –

61-80                 2

81-100               1

Over 100           3

Total number specified                          839

Unspecified number entries      1

Of the cattle, oxen were draught animals, while steers, bullocks and bulls were store cattle for beef or breeding.  Heifer calves were reared either for meat or for dairying, the importance of the latter being reflected in the many references to cows, kine and ‘milch’ kine throughout the inventories. Kine, together with oxen were the most valuable livestock.

Whilst the keeping of store or beef cattle, then, was important, it was dairying which formed the basis of the agricultural economy in the parish.

ROATH DAIRY                                                       CATTLE STORE CATTLE

Kine                     20                                              Steers                22

Milch kine           58                                              Beasts                 5

Cows                   49                                              Young beasts    34

Heifers                               9                                              Bulls                    4

Total                 136                                              Oxen                 28

Cattle                  0

Total                 93

Yearlings, calves, young cattle – could be either category 106

Total cattle       335

A herd of 6 to 8 dairy cows seems to have been the norm.  There were, however, several cases where this number was significantly exceeded.  For instance, Ann Stradling had 14 kine and a bull valued at £28 as well as plough oxen and young cattle worth £14 and £16.12s.0d respectively.

William Meredith, on his farm at Pengam in 1694, had one dry cow and 20 milch kine valued at £31.10s.0d. together with one cow, one ‘bullstag’ and 17 young cattle collectively assessed at £19.

The possession of bulls signified a certain affluence.

Most farms also kept sheep.  839 sheep are given in the Roath inventories.  No doubt a major reason for this was the extensive moorland and rough grazing in Roath.  It is certain that Pengam moor

would have been the pasture for the large flock belonging to William Meredith of Pengam.  He owned 207 sheep and 50 lambs (the largest flock recorded), which were valued at £41.8s.0d and £5 respectively.  Other sizeable flocks in Roath included those of Ann Stradling (1639) whose 115 were assessed at £28. and Blanch Lewis (1689) who had 53 wethers, 74 ewes and 37 lambs, altogether worth £17. The average price for a full-grown sheep in the parish was 3 shillings.

Other animals kept on the farm included pigs and poultry. These are frequently grouped together in the inventories and are very seldom itemised.

In Roath, geese are specified in two instances (Blanch Meredith 1684 and Thomas Griffin 1684) and were worth between two and three shillings each. The average valuation of pigs was 5 shillings. Anne Stradling’s sixteen swine, one sow, six piglets and poultry were valued at £3.9s.0d.; the seventeen pigs, one sow and a boar and one sow and pigs belonging to Blanch Lewis were appraised at £5., while William Meredith’s seventeen pigs and swine were worth £4.5s.0d. Moreover, the figures for livestock investment include animal products such as butter, cheese and bacon although such references are infrequent. The Roath documents contain two references to bacon and

and to cheese.  Ann Stradling’s inventory of 1639 records: ‘Bacon and other powdred meats in the house’, to the value of £3 and the appraisors of Llewellin Jenkin’s inventory of the same year valued

bacon at 14s.0d. and cheese at 13s.0d.

That arable farming was widespread during the 17th century is evident from the number of references made to the growing of corn, 14 of the 16 inventories for Roath making mention of crops.

ACREAGES OF STANDING CROPS AS GIVEN IN THE INVENTORIES

Crop                               Acres

Wheat                            62

Barley                             38.5

Barley & Oats                2

Oats                               14.5

Peas & Cats                   6

Peas                               11.5

Beans                             4

This table shows that wheat was the most widely grown crop, although in Roath barley assumes quite substantial importance.  The average price of wheat per acre throughout the century was approximately £1.6s.0d.  Caution should be exercised when interpreting such acreage evidence due primarily to the time of year the inventory was drawn up.  The absence of such evidence from the inventory does not mean that such crops were not grown.

INDEBTEDNESS

As far as the wills are concerned, 7 testators in Roath specify debts (including the P.C.C. examples mentioned above). These include Richard ap Richard (yeoman) who, by his will of 1644, left £16.10s. to Wr (?) Morgan. This sum comprised ‘ould Reant” owed by Richard.  It is clear however that the latter did not have hard cash with which to pay because 4 kine, a heifer, a steer and a ‘mare coult’ were set aside for payment.  To pay for the rent ‘that is to cam’ Richard set aside ‘all the corne that is in the land’. (i.e.the growing corn on his land).  The non-payment of rent was one cause of debt.  Another Roath testator, Thomas ap Thomas (labourer) was owed £11.12s. at the time of his death in 1663. This consisted of 40/- owed to him by William David of Llanedeyrn, £3 by the widow of John Rynalls of ‘Weddell’ (i.e.Wedal farm), £6 by the widow of Henry Lewis of ‘Michalstowne by St. Faggans’ , and 12/- by his nephew Henry Edwards of Eglwysilan.  No doubt the first three debts were for work done by the testator.

Of the P.C.C. testators in Roath, William Bawdripp was owed 40/- by Craddocke Sherry, the vicar of Cardiff.  Bawdripp also ‘stood engaged’ for two debts owed by his nephews Thomas and Oliver St. John to Thomas Vaughan of Cardiff and Edmond Thomas esquire, respectively. He also owed £4 to Elizabeth Andrewe.  In the case of another P.C.C. testator, Thomas Meredith (1654), one of his sons, Henry, was given ‘the three score and two pounds of Lawfull monie with the increase thereof due uppon Humfry Willies gentleman by one bond or writinge obligatory’.

Finally, the will of Rowland Johnes (1636) is replete with details as to the nature of money-lending, both within the community and further afield, as is reflected by the ledger given below:

DEBTS AND MONEY OWED BY ROWLAND JOHNES

NAME                                                                                  AMOUNT

  1. (i)Worshipful William Herbert esq. 1. (i) 40. 9s. 0d. + 2

(for the ‘Tythe Barne’ in Roath due                                              bushels of barley.

morrow after St.Peter’s next).

(ii) For ‘Tythe’ hay by bond due at                                                (ii) 7.0S0d.

‘All Saints’ next, ‘wch hay is to be

received this summer.

  1. Mr George Morgan, Alderman of Cardiff 2. 3 0s. 7½d.

(due at ‘Whitsontid’ next).

  1. Morgan John, Alekeeper in Cardiff 3. 12d.
  2. Rees Morgan’s wife of Cardiff 4. 12d.
  1. Anne Rymbron of Llandaff 5. 4d.
  1. John Thomas, Alekeeper of Llandaff 6. 14d
  1. Ellinor Spencer of Llandaff 7. 14d.
  1. William George, baker of Llandaff 8. 19d.
  1. John Gray of Llandaff 9. 6d.
  1. Thomas Jenkins John 10. 8d.
  1. Katherine Jenkine of Roath 11. 16d.
  1. Margarett Jenkine Griffith, David’s wife. 12. 2s. 0d.
  1. Robert John of Roath, alekeeper. 13. 3s. 0d. ‘and if hee                                                 doth saie it is more it I desire hee should be paid more,’
  1. Owen William of Roath 14. 6d.
  1. Thomas Lewis (brother-in-law) 15. 2s. 0d.
  1. Thomas Vaughan Barber ‘for the grasse of the 16. ‘xxxjs.’

xiiij young beasts’.

  1. Margaret David of St.Fagans, alekeeper 17. 4d.

DEBTS DUE TO ROWLAND JOHNES

  1. Thomas David Gronow of Llanedeyrn tor 20 1. 5. 0s. 0d.

bushels of oats.

  1. Griffith David’s wife Margrett Jenkine,

David the Millards wife

  1. Jenkine Lewis of Rumney for oats 3. 4. 13s. 4d.

Griffith David’s wife Margret

  1. John Morgan of Rumney, Alekeeper for oats 4. 19s. 0d.

(at’Whitsonmonday’ next)

  1. Katherine Llen. of Llanedeyrn for barley 5. 15s 0d

at ‘Peeterstid’ next

  1. Morgan Harry, brewer of Cardiff, unpaid 6. 6.  8s. 4d.

for barley.

  1. John Roberts of Canton for a mare ‘due 7. a) 35s. 0d.

upon Whitson Mondaie next, and 30s. at                                       b) 30s. 0d,

St Jamestid next’.

  1. Arnold Harrye of Cardiff for two ‘myllche 8. 20s. 0d.

kyne’ at 20s. rent due the 8th September next.

TOTAL DUE          22. 0s. 8d.

 

 

In relation to the inventories only, three out of the total of sixteen (i.e.19%) made reference to debts; Rowland Johnes (1636) was owed £22.0s.8d. (see above), Blanch Lewis (1689) £24.0s.0d. and

Phillip Williams (1690/91) who was owed the following:

due to him by bills and bondes                                       £37.5s.0d.

in desperets depts                                               £5.10s.0d.

due to phillip Williams

Administrators from Lewellin Howells widow   £3.6s.8d.

Total                                                                     £46.1s.8d.

 

 

D.J.P.Childs

 

 

 

APPENDIX 1

PROPERTIES IDENTIFIED FROM ROATH PROBATE INVENTORIES

  1. PENGAM (William Meredith, 1694)

GROUND FLOOR=          PARLOUR

HALL

KITCHEN

FIRST FLOOR =               CHAMBER OVER HALL

(i.e.UPSTAIRS )               CHAMBER OVER PARLOUR

CHAMBER OVER ENTRY (presumably front porch)

  1. SPLOTT FARM

GROUND FLOOR =         PASSAGE

BUTTERY

RED CHAMBER (possibly)

BREWHOUSE

DAIRY

FIRST FLOOR =               RED CHAMBER (possibly)

WHITE CHAMBER OVER THE HALL

ROOM OVER THE PASSAGE

ROOM OVER THE RED CHAMBER (possibly)

TWO ROOMS OVER THE KITCHEN

  1. TY MAWR or LLYS DDU (Blanch Lewis, 1689). Note: The property is not named in Lewis’s inventory, but it is possible that it relates to Ty Mawr which was demolished in 1969.

GROUND FLOOR =         PARLOUR, HALL, KITCHEN,

BUTTERY, OLD BUTTERY, OUTWARD KITCHEN,

DAIRY, GRANARY, STOREROOM, BREWHOUSE.

FIRST FLOOR =               NEW CHAMBER, BLUE CHAMBER, NURSERY,

MIDDLE CHAMBER, KITCHEN CHAMBER,

CHAMBER OVER THE OLD KITCHEN

APPENDIX 2

SOCIAL STATUS OF THOSE FOR WHOM INVENTORIES ARE HELD IN ROATH

Gentleman                                 2

Yeoman                                      5

Widow                                                     3

None specified (men)                5

None specified (women)           1

Total                                           16

APPENDIX 3

 

TRANSCRIPT OF THE INVENTORY OF BLANCH LEWIS OF ROATH, WIDOW, 3 JULY 1689.

A True & perfect Inventory of all the Goods Cattles and Chattles of Blanch Lewis of Roath in the County of Glamorgan Widow Late Deceasd made the third day of July in the first year of our Sovereigne Lord & lady King William & Queen Mary By the Grace of God of England Scotland ffrance & Ireland Defenders of the ffaith & c Annog. Dni, 1689 & Appred by us whose names are Hereunto sub scribed as followeth.

li     s     d

Inprmis. Her Wearing Apparell

Item In the Parlor six Chairs 2 Tables 2 pair of Brass Andires                 01  10  00

Item In the Hall 7 old Chairs a Table & an old Grate                               00  10  06

Item In the Kitchin in Peauter Brass as followeth 1 flaggon Eighteen platters 1 pudding pan 2 Dozen of plates 1 Cheese plate 1 pie plate 1 Running Cover 3 peauter Candlesticks 2 Brass & 3 earthen platters 2 peanter stands 4 Kettles 1 Brass pan 1 Brass Crock 1 Warming pan 2 Iron Crocks 1 drippin

pan 4 Spitts 2 slices 2 pair of Tongues Eight peauter Porringers two hopping Knives 1 Cliver & a Teastel

01  00  00

1 pair of Andires 1 Grate & a pair of Hooks 1 pair of Brass Andires 1 Chest 3 Tables 3 ffleeches of Bacon 1 frying pan & dripping pan 1 Brass Skillett 1 wheele 1 Pestle & Morter 1 Smothing Iron

010  00  00

Item In the Buttery one Grosse of Bottles 1 Old Table & Chest 1 Chair & 4 halfe Barrells

10  00  00

Item In the old Buttery one old Table                                                          00  02  00

Item In the new Chamber 1 pair of Curtins and Vallients 5 Chairs 2 Loaking Glasses 1 pair of Window Curtins 1 Bedsteed 2 ruggs 2 Blanketts 2 pillowbers 1 Table 1 Bellows

02  00  00

Item In the Blew Chamber 1 feather Bed & Bedsteed 1 rugg & Blankett & 1 pair of Curtins 6

Chairs

03  00  00

Item In the Nursery 1 Bedsteed 1 pair of Curtins 2 Blanketts 1 rugg 1 Table 1 Chair

01  00  00

Item In the Midle chamber 1 feather Bed 2 pair of Pillowbers two Blanketts 2 Cupboards 2 old Bedsteeds

01  10  00

Item In the Kitchin chamber 2 feather Beds 2 pair of Curtins l Chest of Drawers 3 Bedsteeds 2 ruggs

& ffour Blanketts

05  00  00

Item In Lynnin of all sorts valued all

05  00  00

Item In the outward Kitchin & Dayrie in Cheese Butter Milke in Vessells and other old lumber

stuffe att Item In the chamber over the old Kitchin 2 old feather Beds 4% Blanketts 4 ruggs 1 Bedsteed

04  00  00

Item In the Granary in wheat Barly & Malt

02  00  00

Item In the Store Roome in old & new Wool

04  00  00

Item In the Stable 1 sadle pillion & other things

00  10  00

Item In the Brewhouse 1 ffurnace & other Brewing vessells

01  10  00

Item In the Barne in wheat & Beans

01  00  00

Item Eight Cows & Calves & a Bull. Item ffour drie Cowes

23  00  00

Item Eight Oxen 2 Steers

15  00  00

Item ffiftie three Weathers of all sorts.  Item Seventie ffour Ewes & thirty Seven. Lamba att

31  08  00

Item two Horses

05  00  00

Item Twenty ffour Acres & a Half of wheat att Two pounds p Acre        49  10  00

Item Twenty Three Acres & a half of Barly att 3 shillings p acre                          35  05  00

Item Three acres of Oates 20 shillings p acre

03  00  00

Item Six acres of Pease & a half att 20 shillings p acre                             06  10  00

Item In Piggs Seventeen slipps 1 Sow & a Boar 1 sow & piggs                 05  00  00

Item In Implemts, of husbandry                                                                             02  00  00

Item In Poultery of all sorts                                                                        00  05  00

Item In Good & Desperate Debts                                                               24  00  00

Item 15 Acres of Hay                                                                                   11  02  00

l     s     d

The wholesume of this Inventory comes to       255  12  06

Appraisors

John William                 (signs)

Wm. Roberts                 (signs)

Llewelin Howell             (signs)


SHORT GLOSSARY OF TERMS FOUND IN THE ROATH PROBATE INVENTORIES

ANDIRE . Andiron. An iron horizontal bar, one of a pair, supported on three short feet, with an upright pillar, usually ornamental in front. They were placed each side of the hearth to support burning wood.

APPRISE. Appraise. To estimate the value of goods.

BOAR. A male pig kept for breeding

BUTTERY. A store-room for ‘butts’ – i.e. large casks of wine or ale. In addition to storing liquor in bottles etc., the buttery was sometimes used for storing provisions.

CALF. The offspring of a cow from birth to one year old

CLIVER. A cleaver. A butcher’s chopper.

CORN. A grain crop – wheat, barley or oats.

COW. Normally an animal that has calved, but in some areas animals are not termed cows until they have calved twice.

CROCK. A metal pot

DEADSTOCK. Farming stock other than livestock, e.g. corn and hay.

DESPERATE. (of debts). Bad or doubtful.

DRY. (of COWS etc.). Not yielding milk.

EWE. A female sheep

FFLEECH. (The “ff” is really a capital ‘f’). Fleech = Flitch, a “side” of bacon – i.e. a side of a hog, salted and cured.

HEIFER. A young cow until she has given birth to her first (or sometimes second) calf.

INCREASE. (of money) in phrase ‘with the increase thereon’ = interest.

  1. OX. (i) A bovine animal

(ii) A bull, especially when used as a beast of burden or draught.

KINE. Cows

LYNNIN. Linen

MILCH-KINE. Cows giving milk or kept for milking.

PEAUTER. Pewter. An alloy of tin and lead and (sometimes) other metals.

PESTLE. A domestic tool with a heavy, club-shaped end for grinding or pounding substances in a strong semi-spherical vessel called a “mortar”.

PILLION SADDLE. (i) A light saddle for ladies  (ii) A pad or cushion attached to the hindermost part

of an ordinary saddle for a second person (usually a woman)

PILLOWBER. (Pillobeer). Pillowcase.

PORRINGER. Bowl for broth or porridge.

POWDRED – Powdered. Of meat, salted. Sprinkled with salt or powdered spice.

RUNNING COVER. Could this be a table-cloth ?

SKILLETT. A cooking utensil having three or four feet and a long handle to stand over the fire; a saucepan, a stew-pan.

SLIPS. Newly weaned pigs sold at market.

SMOTHING IRON. Smoothing iron. A flat iron.

SOW. A female pig kept for breeding. The animal is normally called a sow after she has had one litter; before that she is called a gilt.

STEER. A young male ox usually a neutered one, intended for beef.

TEASTEL. Probably a variation on “trestle”, sometimes occurring as “tressil, “tresoyl”, & “trestyll”.

A thick board supported by a pair of solid wooden trestles would be used for depositing carcases being butchered (with the cleaver )

TONGUES. Tongs

VALLIENTS. Vallances. A deep frill.

WETHER. A neutered male sheep.

WRITING OBLIGATORY. A bill or document, enforceable at law acknowledging an obligation to pay a sum of money; a bond.

YEARLING. An animal a year old or in its second year, especially a sheep, calf or foal.


ROATH KEYNSHAM – AN UNDATED RENTAL

During a recent visit to the National Library of Wales at Aberystwyth I came across three small printed booklets amongst the Tredegar papers (N.L.W. TRED.141/78-80) containing an account of the chief rents of the manor of Roath Keynsham.

No clue is given as to when or why the copies were printed.  They are identical but bear no title page, no date and no printer’s name or other identification.  The rental turns out to be a version of the main portion of the 1702 Survey (Newsletter Vol.1.p.93 et seq.).  It varies from the latter only in a few details – mainly spellings of place-names.  Some of the variations are of same interest however.  In particular, I must admit to having always been puzzled by the word “jureator” occurring after certain personal names in the 1702 Survey. I had same idea that it may have been a spurious latinised version of “Juror”. (Latin:”jurator”). But as most of the names are not to be found in the list of the jurors given at the end of the Survey, this interpretation was never satisfactory and the word “Jureator” remained something of an enigma.

The printed Rental now solves this mystery.  Wherever “jureator” occurs in the 1702 Survey it is changed to “Jure Uxoris” in the Rental.  This is most illuminating.  The legal Latin term “de jure

uxoris” (lit. “By right of wife”) indicates that the persons mentioned had acquired a right (usually a lease) by virtue of their marriage.

The opening words of the Rental are:

  1. The Trustees of Sir Charles Kemeys, Baronet, hold Lands formerly purchased by Edward Kemeys of Kevenmably, of one John ap John David, situate in the parish of Lanedarn, and now held by Lease by David Edward Morgan, Jure Uxoris, now in the tenure of Lewis Henry as his under tenant there called and known by the name of Tyer y ty Coch under the yearly Chief Rent of One Shilling and Four Pence.

1s.4d.

2.(Above Trustees)… hold the Iand late of Jenkin William lying in Kevencoyd within Lanedarn now held by lease by David Richard, jure uxoris being in his own tenure under the yearly chief rent of one shilling and four pence

1s.4d.

  1. (Above Trustees) .. hold the land of William Thomas. William now held by lease by Edmund Richard….

2d.

4.(Above Trustees).. hold the land in Kevencoyd within Lanedarn called Kae Sir Howell now in the tenure of Miles Meredith…

4d.

* * * *

Here are some extracts:

  1. (Above Trustees).. hold Lands by Dowlas-brook in Lanedarn held by lease by Miles Meredith, jure

uxoris…

1s.0d.

  1. (Above Trustees).. hold one tenement called Craig y Lloyne in Lanedarn now held by Lease by Mysaze Zydrach, jure uxoris, in the tenure of David William, his undertenant.

3d.

The parcel of land fetching the highest rental is given at Item 14 where Thomas Lewis, is shown as “of Newhouse” whereas in the Survey he is shown as “of Llanishen”. (Newhouse, as we know, was the name of the Lewis’s mansion at Llanishen).  The land is referred to as in “Kevencoyd, Lanedarn called Kevencoyd Ycha and Tyr Lewis ap Owen now in the tenure of Edward Morris”. The rental here was 6 shillings and a half-penny.

Item 15 refers to land in Kevenpoyth held by widow Grace Lewis of the “Blue House”, Llanishen.

Item No.25 refers to the Kemeys Trustees holding “one tenement in Roath called Tyr y Ty Gwyn near Pont Lykie now in the tenure of John William at a chief rent of 5/-”

Thomas Morgan of Lanrumney had several tenanted parcels, including “Lloyn y Graunt Kennoll”(No.26) @ 5/-,the Park and Tyr Howell Koes (No.27) @ 3/9d., Tyr Kalled in Roath, (No.28) leased by Miles Meredith, the chief rent being 1/-. At No.29 we have the interesting spelling “Pen y Llann als Rase Warth”, a tenement in the tenure of John Thomas and at No.30 a parcel of land in Roath “called the Ten Acres and two other closes of two acres a piece now in the occupation of the said Joshua Robotham” Thomas Morgan also had in Roath “Eight Acres and y Ddwy Errw Donnog” (No.31) and a parcel “near Pont Lykie, called Gover y Marthog” (No32).

Widow Grace Lewis had to pay 8d. chief rent for “Lloyn y Graunt Issa, in the tenure of Rice Thomas” (No.34).

Items No.35 and 36 refer to properties in the centre of Cardiff where one would not expect to find portions of the manor of Roath Keynsham:-

No.35: William Lambert, one of the Aldermen of Cardiff… a House in St. Mary’s Parish in

St.John’s Street, Cardiff, formerly the House of Mr. Richard Bassett”.

An item which does not appear at all in the 1702 Survey refers to the house on the corner of what is now St Mary Street and Church Street and is reproduced hereunder:

  1. Christian Richards, Widow.. House in Cardiff being the Corner House of St John’s Street over against the Market House, now in the tenure of John Cornish, under the yearly chief rent of

1s.0d

At Item No.44, land held by the Kemeys Trustees in “Kevencoyd, Lanedern”” is described thus:

Craig Maes y Gwint Stavell y Gum Kae yr Gwyfill, y Wain Adam and a certain meadow below Craig Elan which was sold by Jamed Llewellin unto Sir Nicholas Kemeys of Kevenmably now in the tenure of Thomas Evan.

5d.

After Item No.50 is the formal declaration concerning the demesne lands given by the jurors commissioned to undertake the Rental:-

ITEM. To the Fifth Article of our Charge, we, the jurors do say and present that the said John Morgan Esquire, the Lord of this Manor hath the Fee Simple of several Tenements of Land, situate within the several parishes of Llandaff, Whitchurch, Llanishen and Roath aforesaid being reputed and taken as his Demesne, and are held by the several Persons hereunder named and charged with the several chief rents at each Tenant’s Name appearing payable at Michaelmas, yearly, viz:-

* * * * *

Unless they relate to Roath, the remaining items (51 – 63) are given hereunder in a surmarised form:-

51.Weddall Ycha in Llandaff parish @ 3/-

52.Tre-Oda in Whitchurch. Widow Alice William held this tenement adjoining the Common, the chief rent being “a Red Rose every Midsummer Eve”.

53.A tenement in Whitchurch. @ One & a half pence

  1. Lloyn Grunn – a tenement in “lanedern” held by Alderman Thomas Williams. @ Threepence farthing.

55.Tenement in Llanishen @ Twopence halfpenny.

56.Another tenement there @ 6d.

57.Another tenement there @ 2d.

58.Another there held by Wm. Robt. Elbrid called “Craig y Castell, als. Blan Vynnon Venus” @ 6d.

59.John Morgan of Pen y Lan holdeth the said tenement and the Land called Tyr Abbod, in Roath aforesaid @ 3s 7d.

  1. George Howells, Esq. holdeth a Mill called Roath Mill, and Six Acres and a Half of Land in the same parish, under the chief Rent of 9d.
  1. Thomas Morgan… certain Lands called Zealand in the Parish of Roath @2d.
  1. Henry Meredith.. certain lands called Tyr y Gois in the same Parish @ 6d.
  1. George David… a certain parcel of Land near Pont Lykie in Roath @ 3d.

* * *

The TOTAL AMOUNT of the Rental was £3.8s.9d and three farthings.

* * * * * *

This printed Rental in the Tredegar papers, while not of spectacular interest to local historians, does augment our knowledge a little of early eighteenth century pattern of land tenures, as well as of personal names and place-names within the area of the manor of Roath Keynsham.

AJWK


PLASNEWYDD PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, KEPPOCH STREET

EARLY HISTORY

The pioneer English Calvinistic Methodist Church in Cardiff was in Frederick Street.  It was 1866 when the Rev. James Mortimer began his ministry there, followed in 1870 by the Rev. Edgar Williams and in 1874 by Dr. Cynddylan Jones, who was regarded at the time as the doyen of the Welsh pulpit and was greatly respected as a theologian.  The denomination was also known as the Presbyterian Church of Wales whose chapels were either English or Welsh.  Welsh Churches in the 1860’s were in Loudoun Square (Bethania), founded 1856, and Trinity Street (Zion). The latter was a massive structure which had stood since 1827 on the site of the present Central Library in the Hayes.  After its sale to the Corporation and its demolition the congregation moved to the new Pembroke Terrace Chapel, a building which still stands, on the corner of Churchill Way and Bridge Street but no longer used as a church.  Members of Bethania and Zion had founded in 1868 the second English Calvinistic Methodist church in Clifton Street.  Bethania and Pembroke Terrace continued for many years as places of worship for Welsh Calvinistic Methodists and Frederick Street for the English.  Plasnewydd became the third English Calvinistic Methodist church in Cardiff.

On the Sunday before Christmas, 1885 a small group met in a house in Richmond Road for the purpose of forming a Sunday School.  The leading light was Edwin Reese who at the time was living at 15 Woodville Road.  Following a meeting with Dr. John Pugh and two members from Clifton Street Chapel – David Thomas and H.J.Lewis – a room affording accommodation for about 50 people was rented at the top end of Richmond Road, (where Barclay’s Bank now stands) for use as a Sunday School.  That was on December 20th 1885.  David Thomas lived at 108 Richmond Road and H.J.Lewis at 23, Mackintosh Place – a newly built property.  The latter was uncle to another pioneer,  W.A.Matthews, who came to live in Kincraig Street, and was manager of a chandler’s stores at the Docks.  They had enrolled 39 members by June 1886 and were using the room for regular meetings to which local preachers were invited.  The Sunday School was then held in a timber lean-to built in the garden of the premises.  The superintendant was Richard Jellings of 8 Crofts Street, who died 28 November 1887.

REMOVAL to KEPPOCH STREET

Edwin Reese wrote:

“The room became too small – overcrowded at last – and we had to move forward.  The Mackintosh Estate had not a building on it save the Institute.  We interviewed the agent of the estate and secured ground for a schoolroom and chapel.  We commenced building the schoolroom at once. Mr. David Thomas was a builder, and we got an estimate from him for building the schoolroom for £1,050. This was very rapidly finished, and we moved in from the mission room”.

The site chosen was near Plasnewydd (Mackintosh Institute) in Keppoch Street.

In the 1936 Golden Jubilee celebration booklet “The Story of Plasnewydd” by W.T.Jones and R.M.Roberts, Mr.W.A.Matthews reminisces that in 1886 Kincraig Street was a drive leading up to “Plasnewydd” mansion.  Beyond it was a wall running down to Talworth House, which gives its name to the street.  On the corner of the drive was a keeper’s lodge with a copse of trees.  From the lodge a wall ran part of the way up what is now City Road.  At the end of the copse of trees the “Lovers Walk” started and proceeded right across the green park to where Claude Place stands today.  Beyond the commencement of the ‘Lover’s Walk’ in City Road, a low railing ran right along to Plasnewydd Road, which was another drive to the mansion.  Beyond this, the railing continued down Albany Road, returning in a line indicated by Cyfarthfa Street when it gave way again to a wall.

On 16 June 1886 the Presbytery (the monthly meeting of the county) gave permission to incur £800 on work to commence according to plans presented by Mr J.H.Phillips of Duke Street, the architect, and in October authorised a further £150. The committee appointed for carrying out the plans consisted of:

S.Hall, D.Morgan (The Hayes: Frederick St.), J.Morgan (Frederick St.), J.B.Davis, Cardiff, and Rev. D.Evans, B.A., Whitchurch.

Three memorial stones were laid 28 July 1886 by Mrs John Morgan, The Parade, Cardiff, Alfred Thomas, Esq., M.P. and Andrew Fulton Esq., Ex-Mayor of Cardiff. The new chapel was opened 31 October 1886 – the special preacher for the occasion being Professor Ellis Edwards, M.A. ,Bala.

The first Church Committee of which there is a record was in 1888, the officers being:

  • Thomas Morgan, chairman
  • Edward Rees, treasurer
  • Edwin Reese, secretary.

In October 1888 twelve members were expelled “owing to six morths“ absence from the place and not contributing anything to the cause and also (in the case of nine of them) having left in an un-Christian spirit”.

It seems to have been a stormy period in the affairs of the Church.  At about this time, two of the founder members, David Thomas and W.A.Matthews severed their connection with the Church.

THE FIRST PASTORS

The first pastor was Rev. Francis Jones, ex-minister at Penmark who had recently moved to Cardiff from Pontypridd. He is thus described in the aforementioned booklet:

“He brushed his hair up from both sides of his head to meet on the crown, where things were not so flourishing.” His was a short lived pastorship.

On 21 October 1888 the Church Committee recommended Mr.B.T.Jones of Briton Ferry to the Church and he was accepted by the members. “It looks as if the Church had forgotten its Presbyterianism for the time being and became a law unto itself”,  wrote the authors of the Jubilee souvenir booklet “for on 24 January 1889, the Rev. D. Evans and J.B.Davies were commissioned by the Prebytery to visit Plasnewydd ‘to see into the regularity of the Church in the choice of a pastor”.  The Rev. B.T.Jones had preached there on January 20th and when he was inducted at a service on February 4th, it seems that his call to the cause had been sustained by the authorities.  He entered his first pastorate and Plasnewydd had its first minister.

B.T.Jones, during his student days, had stayed for nine months with Mr and Mrs Edwin Reese.  He lived at 1 Northcote Street but three years later, after his marriage, he moved to 72 Crwys Road.  He was paid a salary of £30 per annum and was required to officiate on 30 Sundays of the year and would receive a grant of £50 for three years. When his grant came to an end, the members held a stormy meeting at which it was suggested the grant should not be renewed.  It ended with Edwin Reese finding the required £50 out of his own pocket.  B.T.Jones resigned in March 1894.

At Brynmawr on April 19th, 1889, the Presbytery, the governing body, resolved that:

“the present Committee of Management of the Plasnewydd Church be dissolved and that Messrs S. Hall, J.B.Davies and David Morgan, the Hayes, be urged to undertake the entire management of the Plasnewydd Church until the Autumn Presbytery, without retiring from their present position at the Frederick Street Church”.

The following July, the Church Committee was reinstated but in October the Presbytery Committee was again commissioned to take charge of the church.

In April 1889, it is recorded that:

“the Presbytery desires to express joy at the present prosperous state of the cause at Plasnewydd and strongly recommends their efforts to clear off their debt by the sympathy and help of the liberal hearted”.

The Church Committee for 1890 consisted of:

  • B.T.Jones
  • Treasurer: W.B.Davies (father of Mrs. R.W.Power and Miss Caroline Davies)
  • Secretary: Edwin Reese.
  • Thomas Morgan, A.Parsloe, Fred Roberts, E. Hayward, R.W.Evans, J.G.Jones (father of W.E.Jones), M. Elliott, R.M.Davies, J.White, D.Morgan and J. Lewis.

Mr White had attended Richmond Road but did not become a member until 1889.  He was a guard on the Taff Vale Railway and during the summer was employed on the Cardiff – Aberystwyth train, doing the return trip every two days.  Such was his religious zeal he was apparently not above collecting for his church while on duty from “anyone I knew was interested in these things”.

George Llewellyn was an elder at Clifton Street and later took charge of the Metal Street Church.

At the Presbytery held at Blaina on July 10th 1890, it is recorded that: “The plan of buildings submitted by Plasnewydd Church, Cardiff were passed and the Church encouraged to proceed with the work”. This minute evidently refers to the three houses the Church was compelled to build in order to develop the whole of the site and the records indicate that they had trouble with some of the tenants.

On 7 May 1891, 26 new members were recruited as the result of the missionary work of Seth Joshua.  It was on this date that Miss Caroline Davies, Mrs R.W. Power and Mrs.Thamas, 22 Keppoch Street became members – the two latter were then Miss Nora Davies and Miss Jenny White.  Seth Joshua himself was admitted as a member and preacher for the denomination in April 1891 by the Presbytery but does not appear on the Plasnewydd church roll.

The Rev, B.T.Jones resigned in 1894 to take up the pastorship of Sion, Aberdulais.  In 1902 he went to Bethlehem Green Church, Neath where he remained until his death in 1929.

Between 1888 and 1894 the membership had risen from 72 to 92. The average attendance in Sunday School had by then passed the 200 mark.

1895-1904. MINISTRY OF PULFORD WILLIAMS

The ministry of the Rev. Pulford Williams was noteworthy for the progress made by the Church and for the building of the present chapel.  A tender of £3,750 was accepted for the erection of the new, building on the site of the three houses.  After a series of difficulties with the architects and contractors, memorial stones were laid in June 1901.  Work was proceeding smoothly, the roof had been put on and slated and part of the ceiling boarded when the contractors, J.S.Chubb & Co. went bankrupt.  As it happened, one of the members of the Committee, Alfred Richards was a builder and he came to the rescue to complete the building, adjoining the school chapel in Keppoch Street, and it was opened November 3rd 1901. Inside seating was provided for 830 persons.  A target had been set to raise £1,000 between November 1897 and the end of 1898. The failure to reach the target was attributed to the long coal strike of 1898.  However, by the end of 1899, £1,150 had been collected.

The accounts show how the money was raised:-

Church members: £234; Exors. Edward Davies, dec’d of Llandinam: £200; Sunday School: £50; Sundry sources: £48; Profit from great bazaar held in the Cory Hall, Cardiff in October 1899: £617.

How Pulford Williams acquired his name is quite an interesting story.  His true name was John Williams and he was a native of Pulford.  As a youth, he became associated with a church in Chester, the pastor of which was the Rev. John Williams.  It was he who added “Pulford” to the name of the young aspirant from his church.  It was John Williams, senior, who re-named John Williams, junior, “John Pulford Williams” to avoid possible confusion with himself.  And perhaps it was just as well because both came to Cardiff at the same time – one to Canton and the other to Plasnewydd.  The Rev. Pulford Williams resigned in February 1904.  While in Roath he lived in 49 Angus Street.

1904 – 1932. MINISTRY OF E.P.JONES

The Rev.E.P.Jones commenced his ministry in September 1904.  The membership was then 298. The evangelistic revivalist meetings in Cardiff of 1904/5 had its effect.  Membership shot up to 360 in 905 and to 388 in 1906.  It reached a peak figure of 490 in the year 1918 and declined gradually until 926 and somewhat more rapidly thereafter.

The writers of the booklet point out with candour that the figures of membership given in the records are sometimes exaggerated.  They were particularly inflated in the period 1908 – 1929 when the Church had a mission at Fitzroy Street under its wing and during some of these years, at any rate, its members were included in the membership of Plasnewydd.  The authors produced a table of figures which attempts to reflect the true position as far as it can be ascertained. The apparent decline in membership figures is attributed to three factors:

(i) Post-war slump.

(ii) Inter-war economic depression

(iii) Tidying up of figures “to make the Church roll tally with religious facts”.

During the 1914-18 War, 21 men of the Church lost their lives.  A memorial tablet was unveiled 13 June 1920 by Colonel Otto Jones (an old boy of Plasnewydd).

 

CONCLUDING THE FIRST 50 YEARS.

On May 3rd 1932 the Rev. R.M.Roberts of Prestatyn was inducted to the pastorate.

It was sad that the man of exceptional drive and organising ability who was largely responsible for founding the Plasnewydd Church, Edwin Reese, did not live to witness the golden jubilee in 1936 of his beloved Church.  He died 3 April 1935 at the age of 80.  He had been closely associated with Plasnewydd for nearly 50 years. He came from Newtown, Montgomeryshire and moved to Cardiff in 1882 to take up a post with Cory Brothers at the Docks.  He became manager of their forwarding department, a position he held to within a month of his death.  He had spent 53 years with Cory Brothers, 50 years married, 44 years in the same house and 50 years in the same street (Woodville Road).

ALFRED THOMAS. D.L., LL.D was born 1840. He was a merchant and scholar with strong non-Conformist connections, having been President of the Baptist Union of Wales. He was Mayor of Cardiff 1882. Freedom of Cardiff was conferred on him in 1888. He was M.P. (Liberal) for Glamorganshire East from 1885-1910 and Chairman of Welsh members from 1897 – 1910. He was knighted in 1902 and elevated to the peerage in 1912, taking the title LORD PONTYPRIDD. He was the first President of the National Museum of Wales. He lived at “Bronwydd”, Pen-y-lan and died 14 December 1927 leaving no heir.

ANDREW FULTON. A wine and spirit merchant of Cardiff. Born 1831 in Ayrshire he came to Cardiff in 1859. He was the principal member of the firm of Fulton, Dunlop & Co. In 1875 he was elected to the Cardiff Corporation as member for the East ward and became an Alderman in 1887. He was Mayor 1884/5. In 1886 became the first honorary freeman of the Borough of Cardiff.


SOME NOTES ON LLANEDEYRN

Medieval Llanedeyrn

The area which later came to comprise in large part the ecclesiastical parish of Llanedeyrn, was in the late medieval period, broadly divided into two: the Manor of Roath Keynsham and the Welsh

County (or district) of Cibwr. (The latter should not be confused with the Commote of Cibwr which encompassed a far greater area, co-extensive with the Norman lordship of Cardiff. Nor should it, of

course, be confused with a much later Petty Sessional Division called Kibbor “). What precise areas were covered by the ancient District and the Commote is not clear but Corbett’s map of the Manors seems to indicate that the greater part of what became the parish lay within the District of Cibwr including St. Edeyrn’s Church and many of the farms later shown on the 1846 tithe map. On the other hand, it is equally clear that a substantial proportion of it also lay within the Manor of Roath Keynsham, as is evident from the two manorial surveys of 1650 and 1703.

To add confusion to the story, a portion of the later parish was from 1148 in the possession of the Augustine Canons of Bristol, and came to include the property known as Coed y Gores where a farmhouse still stands, the north-east wing and the barn being listed as buildings of historic interest. Near to Coed y Gores stood the 12th century chapel of Llanforda, which was also made over to Bristol and whose site was until recent times marked by Ty Capel cottage.

The Parish of Llanedeyrn

Llanedeyrn is one of the most eastenmost parishes of Glamorgan, being some three to four miles north-east of Cardiff.  Its southern extremity followed the course of the river Rhymney. It is contiguous with the parishes of Roath (south west), Llanishen (west), Lisvane (north) and Michaelstone y Fedw (east), whilst to the south lie the parishes of Rumney and Saint Mellons.

According to the tithe award of 1846 the parish consisted of 2,636 acres. The land is in general low (around 50 feet above sea level), although there is a progressive rise towards the north to just

below 300 feet. This latter land level occurs just south of Coedcadwgan which forms part of the border ridge stretching from Ruperra in the east to Garth Wood near Taffs Well in the west, which

divides the coalfield plateau from the coastal plain. Geologically, Llanedeyrn is predominantly old red sandstone, the southern outcrop of which covers an extensive area immediately north of Cardiff between the Rhymney and the Taff.  Stratographically, much of the parish is composed of the red marl group which consists of rocks “mostly softer than those of neighbouring formation, (and) forms an extensive and fertile tract, lying mostly below the 300 feet level, and given over primarily to farming”. The parish was, as some of it is today, richly wooded.  The frequent references to “coed” in the tithe schedule and as an element in the present day place-names are clear evidence of this.

The parish takes its name from St Edeyrn who, tradition has it, founded a choir of monks there in the seventh century (probably the Christian Society mentioned by Samuel Lewis in his Topographical

Dictionary of 1833).  Although the circular churchyard of St. Edeyrn’s is perhaps testimony to a pre-Christian site, the church was, like its sister ones in Roath, Llanishen, Lisvane and Llanforda, a Chapelry of the parish church of St. Mary’s, Cardiff.  The latter being a priory of Tewkesbury Abbey (since 1102) explains why in 1236 the chapel of Llanedeyrn was transferred from the Abbot of Tewkesbury to the Bishop and Chapter of Llandaff.  Presumably, like Roath, Llanedeyrn became an

independent parish sometime in the late sixteenth century.  St.Edeyrn’s Church, which Lewis described in 1833 as “a small simple structure,” underwent complete restoration in 1888.

A significant topographical difference between Roath and Llanedeyrn parishes can be seen in the dispersal of settlements. Unlike Roath, there is no recognisable “centre” to the parish of Llanedeyrn. The tithe map of 1846 shows that around the church were grouped Church Farm, a public house (The Unicorn) and the Glebe House and lands.  The parish as a whole however was characterised by a wide disperal of farmsteads running its length and breadth (see map).

The census returns for the two parishes between 1801-1851 record the following population level:-

YEAR                       LLANEDEYRN                      ROATH

1801                               301                                 236

1811                               263                                 211

1821                               348                                 269

1831                               315                                 272

1841                               354                                 298

1851                               338                                 312 *

* +82 military in barracks

D.J.P.C.

Modern Llanedeyrn – 1981 Census Statistics

Lying between Cyncoed and Llanrumney is the local authority Community named “Pentwyn” which includes the vast housing estate of Llanedeyrn. The 1981 population of this Community was 18,119.  It then had the highest proportion (over 10%) of children up to 4 year old and the highest proportion (over 24%) between 5 and 15 in Cardiff.  It had the highest proportion in Cardiff (over 33%) of adults between the ages of 25 and 44 and the lowest (less than 13%) of people between 45 and retirement age.  Less than 2% of the population were 75 years old or more. (In contrast, the adjoining Community of Roath (to the south) had 8% of elderly people). The area was also unique in having the highest percentage in Cardiff of households with 3+ dependant children.

Source: Statistical Atlas of Cardiff – 1981 Census. Pub: Cardiff

City Council – Eufryl Davies, City Planning Officer. 1984.

Note – references to the Glebe House and Lands in the Tithe Schedule show the Reverend Edward Jerkins possessing 10 acres 15 perches consisting of :-

acres    rods      perches.

meadow                         4          0           20

House +

garden                           0           3           20

Church +

yard                                1           0           30

Arable +

bracken                          2           0           30

Arable –                          1           3           15

total                               10         0           15

The 1852/3 voters list described Jenkins as residing at Vicarage House, St Mellons owning

Glebe Farm with Thomas Thomas as tenant of the farm.

The 1844/5 + 1845/6 lists named Thomas Price of St Mellons owning the Glebe land , in his own occupation,” parishioners tenants of the tythe”.

The 1867-9 list named William Evan John of the Vicarage St Mellons as the freeholder of the Glebe land with David Christopher as tenant.