Maps and illustrations are not included in this web version of this Project Newsletter. The full Newsletter is available here as a pdf.
A to Z of Place-names in Roath – O to P 37 – 67
Per-y-lan 40 – 61
Pen-y-wain 62 – 64
Roath Election 1878 by S.W.Allen
(Reproduced from his ‘Reminiscences’, pub. Cardiff, 1918) 53
Pen-y-lan: 1824 (D. Stewart’s Bute Estate Plan) 55
1840 (Portion of Tithe Plan) 58
1881 (0.S.1:2500) 59
1901 (0.S.1:2500) 60
Pen-y-Wain, Crwys Bychan & Skibor Fach, 1824
(From D. Stewart ’s Estate Plan) 62
Lord Glanely 45
Dan Radcliffe 47
Dr.J. Lynn Thamas 49
Roath Election – S.W.Allen’s Cartoon 53
For the first time, the Newsletter is devoted almost exclusively to a continuation of the running series of A to Z place-names in Roath. It so happens that two important portions of the Bute estate and one of the Tredegar estate fall to be dealt with under “P” – Pen-y-wain, Pen-y-lan and Pengam.
The opportunity has been taken of making a detailed study of the history of Pen-y-lan in particular and some of its larger houses and some biographical notes on sore of “the folk who lived on the hill” are included.
The David Stewart maps are based on tracings from the original estate maps held in the Glamorgan Record Office (D/OB E.1) and do not, of course, do justice to the exquisite quality of the originals.
An experimental novelty is the introduction of photocopied photographs, some of which, thanks to improved technology, reproduce in a quite acceptable manner. Photographs and some of the biographical material are taken from “Contemporary Portraits and Biographies – Men and Women of South Wales and Monmouthshire – Cardiff Section”, Western Mail Ltd., Cardiff. 1896.,
“Cardiff: Commercially Considered – a Series of Articles mainly re-printed from “The Syren and Shipping”” Wilkinson Bros Ltd. London, 1899,
- “Kelly’s Handbook to the Titled, Landed and Official Classes ” 1929 Edition.
- The Journal of Commerce – Bristol Channel Shipping -Who’s Who?” 1924/5 Edition. (C.C.L. Ref. L:347. 792 (058.7)).
- Dictionary of Welsh Biography (London, 1959)
- Who’s Who in Wales (Eds. 1920, 1933 & 1937)
- Who was Who.
Other sources are acknowledged in the text.
A to Z of PLACE-NAMES in ROATH (Continued)
ODYN (Welsh: kiln). Tithe map plot No.146. “Pump Erw’r odyn”. 6a.0r.10p. Part of Pengam
PANT YR WYN. Shown on the 1:2500 0.S.Map 1880 as a cottage in what is now Albany Road near the present Wellfield Road. (See maps reproduced post p.30 Vol.1). The name may refer to the small hamlet that existed in the triangular plot bordered by the present Albany, Wellfield, and Pen-y-lan Roads.
Also spelt in the Voters” lists as:
- Pantywaun 1845
- Pantywayn 1846 & 1847
- Pantywain 1853
- Pantwain 1868
Edward Richards (Roath) was qualified to vote by virtue of his “Freehold lease” of a cottage (1845-53) and of houses (1868) there.
The cottage is shown but not named in the Tithe Map. Plot No.256. = Cottage & garden in occupation of Edward Richards.
Demolition work started in January 1986 on the block of three-storey houses between the Globe Cinema and Pen-y-lan Road. The only house in Wellfield Road that had not been converted into a shop, adjoining the Globe Cinema, has now been demolished and the days are numbered for the Globe Cinema itself.
In October 1902 the Public Works Committee resolved to use the name “Pant-yr-Wyn Crescent” for the lower end of Pen-y-lan Road between Wellfield Road/Ninian Road junction and Blenheim Road/Albany Road junction. After 25 owner-occupiers had petitioned the Council objecting to the name, the Council agreed to eliminate the minute.
The English speaking residents evidently preferred “Pen-y-lan” to “Pant-yr-Wyn”. And so another place-name disappeared from Roath.
PAYN’S CROSS. See also “Longcross”. A tall cross which at one time stood on the eastern boundary of the liberties of the old borough of Cardiff where it met Roath, near the present junction of City Road and Newport Road. It was probably erected by Paganus or Payn de Turberville c.1310. C.R.V. 389.
PEDAIR-ERW-TWC. (The tuck 4 acres) A tenement in the manor of Roath Keynsham named in the survey of 1703. It consisted of a messuage and land between Roath and Llanishen, on the west side of the Nant-mawr (i.e.Roath Brook) and belonged to Pengam. The house has been demolished. – C.R.V.329, 399.
PEDAIR ERW YR PWLL. 1777. Splott. Field No. 31. 5a.2r.4p. (N.L.W.TRED. 56/442)
PEDAR ERRW LLEWELLIN. A field in Splott. 4a.2r.0p. Field No.44. 1777.(N.L.W.TRED. 56/442)
PEDER ERW PONT ROATH. A plot in Pengam shown in Tithe Apportionment. Plot 99. Arable 5a.1r.16p. The owner: Charles Morgan. Occupier: Jennet Morgan.
PEDWAR-ERW-Y-DRAIN-DUON. (The 4 acres of the black thorns). Land on the Splott (1764) C.R.V.399.
Occurs as “Pedar Erw Y Drain Duon”.
- Splott. 5 acres. Field No.17 (N.L.W.TRED. 56/442)
PENGAM. J.H.M. in C.R.V.399 says:
- “(accentuated on the first syllable, with the “ng” sounded as in ‘singer’).
- An old farmstead on the Severn shore in the parish of Roath, a mile and a half east from Cardiff. It is apparently identical with Griffthsmoor (1694)”
There are several references in 17 century Roath wills, e.g. that of Mary Meredith who left the remainder of the lease of Pengam to her son Edmund for payment of her late husband’s debts. The will and inventory of William Meredith, 1694, is referred to in the article on “Probate Inventories 1600 – 1700” in the last Newsletter (p.2 et seq.)
From the Roath parish registers, monumental inscriptions, Land Tax assessments and the will of William Morgan, 1792 it should be possible to same extent to reconstitute the family of the Morgans of Pengam. Briefly, William Morgan who died 24 September 1791 age 77 was the son of Edward Morgan of Pentwyn Farm in Whitchurch, identified by E.L.Chappell in “Old Whitchurch” as the club-house of the Whitchurch Golf Club. By his wife, Jane, William had 7 children of which 4 died in infancy. His daughter Mary, the sole executrix, outlived her two sisters and died at Pengam in 1819 at the age of 78. The tenancy of Pengam then came into the hands of another branch of the family. It is known that Henry Morgan of Pwllcoch near Llandaff died at Pengan 25 June 1834 in his 88th year. His nephew Henry Morgan died in 1838 age 49 and his sister Jennetta Morgan, described as “late of Pengam” died at her house in Cardiff 9 November 1842. It is this lady, named as Jennett Morgan, who figures so prominently in the Tithe Apportionment as the occupier (i.e. leaseholder) of a large number of plots covering a vast area of land belonging to Sir Charles Morgan (Tredegar Estate).
In 1840, the land of Pengam consisted of 219 acres or arable, pasture and meadow.
The 1841 Census shows it to be in the occupation of David Edwards who was living there with four female members of his family, four male servants and two female servants.
In 1851, the occupier was John Evans who was living there with his wife, two infant sons, his sister-in-law, a nurse, two female servants and five farm labourers. He is shown as farming 100 acres of upland and 80 acres of moor, employing eight men.
Unfortunately, Pengam is in the missing portion of the 1861 Census Enumerator ‘s return.
In 1871 John Evans age 49, is shown as farming 350 acres and employing 8 men. He was living at the farm with his wife and ten children, varying in age from 1 to 21 years of age. In addition, there was a female cook, age 17, an under-nurse, age 12, a 64 year-old cowman, a 24 year-old ploughman and a 20 year-old coachman.
A toll-gate stood in Newport Road near the bridge over the Roath Brook, at a point close to the former Roath Power Station.
The Great Western Railway passed through the Pengam farmland more or less parallel with the Newport Road and cut across the access road leading from Newport Road to the farmstead. Here a level crossing gate was installed.
The farm gave its name to the whole area bordering the highway in the easternmost part of the parish and to the moorland bounded by the River Rhymney in the east and the Bristol Channel in the south.
Because of the low-lying nature of the land, it was always subject to flooding but sea walls had been built and re-built from the earliest times until recent times when the land was eventually sufficiently well drained to render a large part of it suitable as a landing ground for aeroplanes. Hence the development of the moors into Cardiff (Pengam) Municipal Airport which started operating in 1930.
About this time, the old farm-house was demolished. By 1950 the airfield was the third busiest airport in Britain (measured by aircraft movement rate).
During the Second World War an R.A.F Maintenance Unit was set up at Pengam where Spitfires were crated up for despatch overseas.
Penlon Cottage. (? Pen-y-lan). Pen lon = Welsh. Head of the road or lane.
Plot 303 in the Tithe Appt. lr.llp. part of “Ty Gwyn and Penlan”.
Owner: Bute. Occ. Wm. Evans, junior.
Penrhyddwaun. Plot 104. Tithe Appt. pasture. 6a.0r.6p. part of Pengam.
Owner: Sir Chas. Morgan. Occ. Miss Jennett Morgan.
Pen-ylan is the name of the area of the high ground to the north of the old village of Roath and was within the old ecclesiastical parish of Roath. The name is taken from Pen-y-lan Farm, otherwise known as Ty Gwyn on the site of which was built in the 1870’s the Convent of the Good Shepherd – a building commissioned by Bute and ascribed to William Burges. It was demolished to make way for the present Heathfield House R.C.School in Ty Gwyn Road.
J.Hobson Matthews in C.R.V.401 writes:-
Penylan (The end of the height).
A gentle eminence to the north-east of Cardiff lying in the parish of Roath. It is the south eastern spur of the Cefn-coed ridge. The name is applied particularly to a house and land near the summit belonging to Mr Fedele Primavesi.
In a Minister’s Accounts of 1392 (C.R.1.156) it is stated:
And for 50s. of tithes of the sheaves of Walschmenhull, with three closes by Roth and as
far as the “hethe” sold this year.
- Hobson Matthews, referring to this reference (C.R.1.100) says:
“Walschmenhull” would seem to be identical with Penylan. It was perhaps the tribe-land of Cibwr, that is to say, the common hereditary territory of the original Welsh people of this district.
Same selected Land Tax assessments:-
1786-91: Owner = Hon. Chas. Morgan Occ.= Thamas Stephen
1794: Owner = Sir Charles Morgan Occ.= Thomas Stephen
1800: Owner = Hon. Earl of Bute Occ.= Mrs. Mary Moran.
1810: Owner = Henry Hollier Occ.= himself
1820: Owner = Henry Hollier Occ.= Wm. Lewis
1830: Owner = Marquess of Bute Occ.= Wm. David, Ty Gwyn
The amounts of tax are:
1794-1800. £1.15s. 4d.
Note: The description of land assessed is not given in the assessments except for the years 1788, 1789 and 1790 where it is shown as Penylan or Penylan Farm and 1830 where it is shown as Ty Gwyn. The assessments for the remaining years can be identified from the similarity of amounts charged from year to year. From 1800 the parcel of land previously assessed seems to have been apportioned and the only portion that can be identified is “Ty Gwyn”.
Burial registers for Roath show:
13 April 1793. Thomas Thomas of Penylan was buried.
13 April 1795. Henry Thomas of Penylan was buried.
26 January 1838. Thomas John of Penylan, age 79, buried.
The estate papers show that Pen-y-lan was within the manor of Roath Keynsham.
In the survey of the manor of Roath of 1702, a free tenement in the parish of Roath is described as “Penylaunetts Raseworth” in one version and “Pen y Llann als Rase Warth”” in another. It was held by Thomas Morgan of Llanrumney and tenanted by John Thomas.
In the same survey, another tenement is thus described: “John Morgan of Pen-y-Lan holdeth the said Tenement and the land called Tyr Abbod in Roath aforesaid”.
Confusingly, the freehold of this parcel of land was held by the Lord of the Manor – another John Morgan. In other words it was demesne land leased by John Morgan, lord of the manor to a certain John Morgan of Pen-y-lan.
The land at Pen-y-lan was sold by Sir Charles Morgan to the Marquess of Bute at the end of the 18th century.
Henry Hollier of Cathays House and later of Adamsdown was agent for the Bute estate from 1784 until his dismissal in 1815. The farm of Pen-y-lan was one of several tracts of land which Hellier had managed to acquire during his term of office. Other parcels of land were portions of the Great Heath, enclosed under the Heath Enclosure Award Act of 1801. Following his prosecution for embezzling Crown money in 1818, all his lands were confiscated and sold. His former estates in Adamsdown, Rhydypennau and Pen-y-lan, comprising same 280 acres were purchased by Bute for £9,000. See “Cardiff and the Marquesses of Bute”, U.W.P.Cardiff 1981.p.35.
David Stewart’s Bute Survey of 1824 (G.R.O. D/OB. El) includes a map (No.10) on a scale of 10″ to the mile. and terrier of the Pen-y-lan estate of the Marquess of Bute. It is described as being bordered on the North by Fairoak Farm, on the East by the Road from Roath and Llwyn-y-Grant Farm, on the South by the land of Sir Charles Morgan, on the South-west by Skibor Fach Farm and on the West by the land of Sir Charles Morgan. The area is 114a.2r.4p. The tenant is shown as William Jones.
In CARDIFF – A HISTORY OF THE CITY by William Rees (p.76 2nd.
Ed.). Cardiff 1969, it is stated:
At. Ty-gwyn, probably on Keynsham land, stood the wishing well – Old Well (Hen Ffynnon) – where on Easter Monday it was the custom to hold a fair, known as the Ffair Penylan, even in recent times.
A footnote provides further information:
The well still exists near the junction of Bronwydd Avenue with Penylan Road and is marked with a stone cover with arched entrance. It was held to be associated with a spectre seeking liberation from bondage….
In A TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF WALES by Samuel Lewis (1833 edition) under the heading “ROATH” it is stated:
Near the centre of the rising ground to the north of the village is a spring of pure water, called Penylan Well, which has been enclosed, and is greatly resorted to by all classes on Easter Monday, when it is supposed that charms are wrought, fortunes foretold, and wishes registered at the mystic stream.
In Volume V p.324 of the “Cardiff Records”,(1905) J. Hobson Matthews recorded the reminiscences of some old inhabitants, among whom was William Morgan Hier Evans, Esq., M.B. whose maternal grandfather, Mr Morgan occupied Ty Gwyn (otherwise Penylan farm) the barn of which then formed the convent chapel. He said that the well in the present grounds of Well-Field was formerly on the lands of Ty Gwyn. He could not remember that it bore any distinctive name. He wrote to J. Hobson
Matthews shortly before his death:
My mother tells me that the well at Penylan was a bowl of about six inches in diameter, with a lip that was supposed to be an impression of Jesus Christ’s knee. The water emerged from the rock and was walled over. On Easter Monday a large number of people wended their way thither to drop bent pins into the well, but my mother does not remember that any curative value was attached to the well. My father put a stop to the annual pilgrimage when he became tenant of Ty Gwyn Farm.
Perhaps the well still lies hidden in the grounds of the house or perhaps just has been lost for ever. What does survive is the tradition of the old well as preserved in the names of the two condemed houses – “Oldwell” and “Wellclose” on Pen-y-lan Hill.
Pen-y-lan at the turn of the century was a favourite abode of Cardiff professional men and docks businessmen who built there some elegant mansions standing in park-like grounds. Most have disappeared with the spread of urban development. Apart from Birchwood Grange which, I believe, is the subject of an unpublished landscape study by Professor Knowles of University College, Cardiff, the only surviving examples of late Victorian prestigious villas in Pen-y-lan are “Oldwell” and “Wellclose” both of which are shortly to be demolished despite attempts to get them listed for preservation as buildings of special architectural and historic interest.
The plan for “Wellclose” (submitted by A.E.Elliott) was approved by the Public Works Committee in January 1886. The house makes its first appearance in the directories in 1887 when Thomas W. Jotham is shown as living there.
He was, like his father before him, a successful woollen merchant. Jothams Ltd. was a well known firm of clothiers and outfitters with shops in Duke Street and St Mary Street.
The Western Mail Directories for 1903 to 1932 show the occupier during the whole of this period was H.B.Marquand. In fact his full name was Hilary Blondel Marquand. He was born in Guernsey and was educated there and in France. In 1868 he entered his father’s office in the firm of Martin and Marquand, ship brokers, coal exporters and steam tug owners and succeeded to the partnership in 1872. He became a director of Hill’s Dry Dock and Engineering Co.Ltd. and became chairman of Care & Marquand Shipping Co.Ltd., the secretary being Leonard Blondel Marquand. In 1925 the company had one vessel engaged in foreign trade – “Arncliffe” of 3,583 tons gross, 2243 tons net.
Of a later generation was David Marquand, a distinguished scholar and journalist who unsuccessfully contested the Barry parliamentary constituency in 1964.
Adjoining “Wellclose” is “Oldwell”. A plan was approved by the Cardiff P.W.C. in January 1887 for what is described in the City Hall records as “Cottage, Oldwell”. It first appears in a directory of 1888 when John Biggs is shown as the occupier. In 1908 a Mrs M. Edwards is given as the occupier. In 1913 it had become the home of William Young and he was still there until 1929 – and possibly later. (I have not searched later directories). William Young was a wealthy Cardiff potato merchant whose business premises were at 295 Bute Street and 30 New Street in Cardiff. The importing side of the business was carried on by Young Bros. from 10 Custom House Street.
There is a story, (which I cannot verify!) that the house was haunted by the ghost of the daughter of the household who committed suicide by throwing herself from a balcony following an unhappy love affair.
After the war, both “Oldwell” and “Wellclose” were taken over by the local authority as hostels for elderly people.
The residence of Sir Alfred Thomas M.P., (later Lord Pontypridd).
It gives its name to Bronwydd Avenue, Pen-y-lan.
It was one of the first of the large villas to be built on Pen-y-lan Hill. “Bronwydd” is shown in the 1871 Census as being occupied by Daniel Thomas, age 64, whose occupation is given as a “farmer of 360 acres, employing on Ty Gwyn Farm 9 men, 4 women & 2 boys”. Daniel, who gives his place of birth as Rumney was living there with his wife, Margaret and two unmarried children, Joseph William age 25 and Margharita age 17. Ten years later the Census enumerator records that he was farming 200 acres are employing only three men. His wife and unmarried son, Joseph William were still there and one 17 year-old female servant.
Hugh Bird’s Cardiff Directory & Handbook for 1858 tells us that Daniel Thomas, described as a “contractor”, was then at Upper Llwyn-y-Grant. We know that it was here that Alfred was born on 16 September 1840.
The occupational description of Daniel Thomas as a “contractor” rather belies his considerable status as a successful public works engineer. He was one of the contractors who built the West Bute Dock (1839), and was responsible for re-building Cardiff Bridge (1859) and constructing several public buildings. The move to his newly built residence at Pen-y-lan seems to have coincided with his retirement as a contractor, to became a gentleman farmer.
Daniel’s son, Alfred, was educated at Weston School near Beth but spent his life in his father’s business in Cardiff. He was first elected to the Cardiff Borough Council in 1875 and remained a member for 11 years. He was Mayor of Cardiff 1880-1 and when he was awarded the freedom of the borough on 13 August 1888, he was only the second person to receive such an honour. He was raised to the peerage in 1912. As a young man he became a member of the Tabernacle Chapel in the Hayes, Cardiff and remained a staunch supporter of the Non-conformist cause. He held the post of Treasurer of the Baptist College at 54, Richmond Road and became President of the Baptist Union of Wales. His name appears on the foundation stones of several local non-conformist chapels. There are still same elderly people who remember going on the annual Sunday School Whitsun Treat to the grounds of “Bronwydd”.
When parliamentary representation of Glamorganshire was divided in 1885, he was elected M.P. for the Eastern Division and kept his seat until 1910. His efforts contributed to the removal of the unpopular and onerous charges of the Glamorgan Tolls and in the 1880‘s he was openly supporting Poor Law Reform.
He is remembered in particular for his active support of educational work. He was one of the first, if not the first to open the fund for the South Wales University College with a donation of £1000. He followed Lords Aberdare, Bute and Tredegar as President of the University College and was the first President of the National Museum of Wales. He died unmarried 14 December 1927.
This was the residence of W. J. Tatem (Lord Glanely). The house, named after his ship of 3851 tons which was launched in 1899, first appears in the Cardiff directories in 1900. It is shown on the O.S. 1:2500 map of 1901 as a building standing in its own ornamental grounds of about two acres (Plot 56) with an entrance lodge and entrance drive from Ty Gwyn Road. Behind the grounds were more than one and a half acres of woodland (Plot 85) extending westward down to the old Roath parish boundary. If one was proceeding from Pen-y-lan Road towards the Cyncoed Road it was the last building on the left in Ty Gwyn Road. The grounds were bounded on the south by Birchwood Grange Lane and on the north by farmland stretching to the Cyncoed Road.
W.J.Tatem’s firm which operated from Phoenix Buildings, Mount Stuart Square, in Cardiff Docks owned two of the biggest Cardiff ships -“Torrington” and the “Wellington” – turret ships each of 10,000 tons. They were so massive that were said by the Cocks community to have “frightened the lives out of everybody”.
Born in Appledore, Devon in 1868, Tatem was a colourful dynamic personality on the dockland scene – a controversial figure not universally popular amongst the higher echelons of Cardiff socialites. He married in 1897 Ada Mary, daughter of the late Thomas Williams of Cardiff. He was, apparently, ignorant, rough and uncouth and it was said by a contemporary that he could hardly write his name, let alone speak the King’s English. That he cared little for social niceties was evident on the occasion of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra ‘s visit for the opening of Queen Alexandra Dock in July 1907, when after being presented to their majesties, Tatem turned his back or them before retiring.
If you had been in Pen-y-lan that afternoon and had chanced to walk past “Shandon”, you might have wondered why the air was ringing with the happy laughter of so many schoolchildren in the grounds. Tatem had a kindly, philathropic side to his nature. He had thrown open the grounds of his house to handicapped school-children after allowing them aboard his two ships “Torrington” and “Lady Lewis” (named after his wife) earlier in the day so that they could watch the royal ceremony in the docks and he had laid on for them free tea and buns.
He was High Sheriff of Glamorgan 1911 and was raised to the peerage in 1918.
He was chairman of Tatem Steam Navigation Co.Ltd., Atlantic Shipping & Trading Co.Ltd. and Crosswell’s Cardiff Brewery. He was a director of at least a dozen public companies, including the Great Western Railway. He was also chairman of a private company – W.J.Tatem Ltd., the secretary of which was T.Craig. It operated from Cambrian Buildings in Mount Stuart Square and ran four tramp steamers of about 3000 tons and one of 5227 tons gross.
He made many generous donations to charity, including the Cardiff Royal Infirmary. As “Glanely” he became well known in horse racing circles. As an owner of race-horses, 1919 was his most successful year, when “Grand Parade” won the Derby and his 45 winners that year netted him £30,654 in prize money, which was £7,751 were than his nearest rival.
He was made an honorary freeman of the City of Cardiff 26 March 1928.
During the Second World War, Glanely purchased a house in Weston-Super-Mare which he regarded with some justification as less vulnerable to enemy air raids than Cardiff. Such was the irony of events, Glanely’s retreat in Weston-super-Mare was one of the few buildings to be struck in the first air raid to reach that part of the West country. It was an even more tragic irony that Glanely was there that night in 1942. His body was found under the stairs. His estate was valued at about £2 million.
“Bronwydd” had by 1929 been taken over by the Cardiff Corporation and according to 1937 directory it was then occupied by J.J.Williams, agent for the Marquess of Bute.
Tal-y-Werydd. (Spelt “Tal-y-wyrdd” in some directories).
This house was originally known as “Craigisla” as shown on the O.S. Map 1901 when it was occupied by John Strachan. The plan for the house was approved by the P.W.C. in 1894. It was the address of John Strachan according to the directories at least up to 1908.
Before World War 1 it had become the home of Dan Radcliffe who evidently re-named it. He was not a Welshman, however, and it is not at all clear how the house came to bear the Welsh name – which perhaps was meant for “Tal-y-Weirydd” or “Tal-y- Weurydda” and could possibly be the equivalent of “High Meadow” in English.
Dan was educated at Simpson’s Academy and privately. He started work as a boy with Turnbull Bros. in Cardiff Docks as a customs clerk but rose in time to become the manager. In 1889 after working there for 14 years, a vacancy arose in the partnership of Evan Thomas, Radcliffe & Co., of Baltic House in the Docks, when the senior partner died. Dan then joined his brother, Henry, the remaining partner. By 1899 the firm owned more shipping tonnage than any firm in the Bristol Channel. They had a fleet of general traders as well as regular lines to and from Odessa to Rotterdam and from New Orleans to Rotterdam and several large steamers were nearing completion.
Dan’s brother, Henry, had a reputation for being tight-fisted and lived as a recluse at “Druidstone”, St. Mellons. He was reputed to he even richer than Tatem. Daniel Radcliffe, in contrast, was a charitable character, full of bon-hamie. He was sheriff of Glamorgan 1917-18. In 1923 he gave £50,000 in conversion loan to the University of Wales for which gesture he was personally thanked by the Prince of Wales. He gave 1000 guineas to the Metropolitan Police Orphanage Fund and £1000 each to the Merthyr Hospital, the Welsh Church Million Fund and the Sustentation Fund of the Calvinistic Methodist Body. Lewis Tougher, the M.P. for Cardiff Central 1924-1929 called him “the guiding star of the city’s shipping industry”.
A directory of 1924-5 tells us that the firm of Radcliffe, Evan Thomas & Co. consisted of Dan Radcliffe, Wyndham Ivor Radcliffe M.A., John Howell Thomas and Henry Charles Bolter. Their ships were:
Boverton, Llangollen, Gileston, Clarissa Radcliffe, Llanberis, W.I. Radcliffe, Wimborne, Picton, Llangorse, Ethel Radcliffe.
This was one of the three private residences at Pen-y-lan shown on the 1881 0.S. map (The other two were “Bronwydd” and “Pen-y-lan House).
It was then occupied by two separate households – those of George Parfitt and Edward Jenkins. It stood at the top of the hill almost opposite the opening into Llanedeyrn Road. The name is retained for the modern residential close.
The 1871 census tells us that George Parfitt, age 36, described as a “civil engineer and engine master” was living in an un-named property shown as “top of Penylan Hill” with his four unmarried sisters, all in their twenties, and a 19 year old female servant. Also on top of Penylan Hill, resumably in the same premises, with his wife, his 4 year old daughter and two year old son was Edward Jenkins age 36, described as an “iron founder master”.
By 1881, according to the census, all his sisters had gone. George Parfitt, still unmarried, was now described as an engineer. He then had a 24 old housekeeper and an 18 year old female domestic servant living there. At the same address was Edward Jenkins, now described as an “engineer and ship-builder” with his wife and two children.
George Parfitt disappears from the directories after 1886 but Edward Jenkins continues to be shown at “Green lawn” until 1889. In October of that year a plan for “Green lawn” was approved by the Public Works Committee for Dr Lynn Thomas.
Dr Lynn Thomas lived at “Green lawn” until the 1920’s. He was born at Cwmyefeill, Llandyssul, Cardigan, in 1861, and educated at the London Hospital Medical College. He was the son of Evan Thomas of Llandyssul and became senior house surgeon the Glamorgan and Monmouth Dispensaries and assistant surgeon to the Dinorwic Quarries Hospital.
He was surgeon-lieutenant to the 2nd. Glamorgan Volunteer Artillery and surgeon to the Cardiff Infirmary.
He was awarded the C.B. and C.M.G. Obtained L.R.C.P. (London) 1886 and F.R.C.S.1892.
He became consultant surgeon to several local hospitals, including the Hamadryad and the Prince of Wales Hospital. He was apparently obsessively fascinated with pre-historic antiquities and druidism. It was because of his connections with the Prince of Wales Hospital on the corner of the Walk and Richmond Road that he hit on the eccentric idea of having a cromlech built in the space between the hospital and the pavement in the Walk. In 1918 the stones were brought from St Lythans and erected in the form of a megalithic burial chamber that is still standing.
He was author of “Causation, Prognosis and Treatment of Fractures of the Skull”.
When J. Hobson Mathews writes of the Primavesi family being associated with Pen-y-lan, he was referring to one of the first of the stately villas of the Cardiff noveau rich to be built on Pen-y-lan Hill. The Primavesi residence appears in the 1881 0.S. map but the house goes back to the 1860’s.
The 1871 Census shows the occupants were:
- Fedele Primavesi. age 69. merchant- hardware/leatherware. b. Italy
- Fedele Primavesi. age 32. his son. b.Italy
- Sarah Primavesi. age 29.his son’s wife. b. Blackwood, Mon
- Fedele Primavesi. age 2. his grandson. b.Roath
Fedele Primavesi, junior, appears in the directories from 1875 to 1881 but the family were not at Pen-y-lan House at the time of the 1881 Census. It was then occupied by John O Riches, age 53, a colliery owner, his wife, two daughters aged 24 and 22 and a son age 15 as well as domestic staff consisting of a parlourmaid, a cook, a housemaid and a boy stable keeper. It would seem that the house may have been leased to John Riches because his name appears as the occupant for the next five years. At any rate, the Primavesi family re-appears in 1887 and continues at Pen-y-lan House until 1927.
Thanks to some splendid research by Geoffrey Dart, former South Glamorgan County librarian, we can perform an interesting little exercise in family reconstitution from which it emerges that there was a family connection between two Pen-y-lan families – that of Daniel Thomas of Llwyn-y-Grant (and later of “Bronwydd”) and that of Fedele Primavesi of Pen-y-lan House. It came about by the marriage on 31 December 1867 of Sarah Thomas, daughter of Daniel, and brother of Alfred (later Lord Pontypridd) to Fedele Primavesi.
It will be seen that the couple and their infant son, Fedele of the 3rd generation appear in the above 1871 Census extract. Although Sarah came of a staunch Non-conformist family and the Primavesis were devout Raman Catholics, there is no evidence of animosity by members of either family to the match.
In fact Mr. Dart mentions that another daughter of Dan Thomas also married into the Primavesi family.
The family grave is in the R.C. section of Cathays cemetery. It is a vaulted double tomb standing on a large plinth surmounted by a Celtic cross monument. Here are buried Minnie and Fedele Primavesi, junior, Ernest and Martina Primavesi and Captain John Crichton who was killed in North Africa on 11 November 1942.
The Primavesis had left Pen-y-lan House by 1928 when the directories show it was occupied by a Mrs Webb. In 1937 it was occupied by T.H.Turner.
This house in Ty Gwyn Road gives its name to the present block of flats, built on the site.
1899 – 1908: J.W.Courtis
John Wesley Courtis was elected to Cardiff Borough Council as Unionist representative for Park ward in 1897. He was re-elected in 1900 but defeated in the 1906 election. He retained a seat on the Council in 1908 when he was returned unopposed for Riverside in 1908. His firm of stock and share brokers, J.W.Courtis & Co. was then operating from Bank Buildings, St Mary Street. He was later elected Alderman.
1913: Thomas Hubert Spence
1915: Dr James Robinson, J.P. (whose original surgery is still a doctors surgery at 24 Albany Road). He was elected Lord Mayor of Cardiff in 1913 and was nominated Knight Bachelor in the New Year’s Honours List, 1928, but died before receiving the accolade.
1929 – 1932: Lady Robinson
1958: Hillside Nursing Home
1901 – 1924: W.Geen
1921: Fred G.Evans
1927: Capt. J. Jenkins, shipowner
1901: John H. Corfield
1921: The house had now been re-named “Woodlands” and was occupied by Henry West.
The first person to take up residence in this mansion was Charles J. Jackson, who in the 1901 directory is described as a barrister.
He was born c.1850 at Monmouth where he was educated. His father was James Edwin Jackson, a builder and surveyor who moved to Cardiff in the 1860’s to begin building operations here. Having learned a good deal about building constriction from his father, young Charles James practised as an architect. Many of the most imposing buildings in Cardiff were designed by him. He was clearly a man of considerable intellect and decided to train for the Law.
In the municipal election of 1882 he was elected as a Conservative member of the Cardiff Corporation for the East ward and continued on the council until 1887, when his professional engagements forced him to resign his seat.
Having entered the Middle Temple as a student three years earlier, he was called to the bar in January 1887 and practised on the South Wales circuit. At the General election of 1895 he unsuccessfully contested the parliamentary seat for East Glamorgan but succeeded in increasing the Conservative vote by over 1100. He was a J.P for the County of Glamorgan and as a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries was regarded as an authority on many archaeological subjects.
Between 1908 and 1915 Birchwood Grange was the home of Mrs H. Morgan and in 1922 Sir William James Thomas was in residence there. During the Second World War and for a few years afterwards, the building was used by the Inland Revenue to house a District Inspector of Taxes and his staff.
This house in Ty Gwyn Avenue was the home firstly of Reginald Arthur Gibbs (1924) and later of Sir Julian Hodge.
The house in Ty Gwyn Road where Alderman P.G. Rill Snook lived.
He was very active on the municipal scene and is remembered by many Cardiffians for his formal dress and top hat. He was made honorary freeman of the City on 10 February, 1947.
This house which stands on the corner of Ty Gwyn Road and Cyncoed Road was the home at one time of Sir William Reardon Smith, Director of St Just Steamship Co.Ltd., Sir William Reardon Smith & Sons Ltd, the Leeds Shipping Co. Ltd. and the Oakwin S.S.Co.Ltd. He was made honorary freeman of the City of Cardiff on 26 March 1928, the same day as it was awarded to Lord Glanely. The family business was one of the best known and longest surviving shipping concerns in Cardiff. They ceased trading in 1985.
In the 1920’s, the residence in Ty Gwyn Road of Dr. Thamas McKelvey, in general practice with Dr.James Robinson at 24 Albany Road
In 1958 this was the home of Sir Robert Webber, J.P. of Western Mail fame – a deputy lieutenant of Glamorgan.
ROATH ELECTION, 1878.
To some people the glare of municipal life has its attractions, and many of my very best friends have been at some time or other captivated by the desire to pose as a councillor or a chief magistrate. Most of us have naturally been drawn into the vortex of electioneering fascinations. I am reminded of this by the Roath election cartoon of 1878, when Mr. Alfred Thomas, now Lord Pontypridd, appealed for the suffrage of the ward named. This was his second election as a town councillor for that important position, and I need hardly say that I was one of his most enthusiastic supporters, and perpetrated the electioneering skit, a copy of which may interest many of his old constituents.
In this election the great war cry was “ Vote for the two T.’s,” there being two vacancies. The other T. was the very greatly respected Mr.Alderman Trounce, who I am glad to learn has decided on recording his early reminiscences of Cardiff, and as he can give me a few years start, he will be able to tell you first hand of his early career as a boy in Red Cow Lane, now Womanby Street, where he witnessed many a good ship sail from the bend of the river, previous to its diversion, when the South Wales Railway demanded its straightening in 1852.
In this cartoon the candidates are depicted being led by Mr. Alfred Thomas, who says, ‘‘ Oh, crikey! Trounce is close behind me, and, bedad, I can smell sausages not far off.”
Then follows Mr, Trounce, in tall hat and spectacles. He says, ‘‘ Lead the way, Mr. Thomas ; I’ll keep those persons out.”
Following in the rear is a well-known pork butcher, Mr. William Ayres, who did a very big trade in that commodity in a building which formerly stood in the centre of the Hayes, and as near as possible to the present position of the Batchelor statue. Mr. Ayres is depicted riding on one of his favourite steeds, an unusually fat porker, with a string of sausages for a bridle. He says, ‘‘ You think you can get into the Town Hall so easy, ‘Lime Dust and Specs.’ Sossingers and sewers ain’t far behind.”
The pig says, “Stick on, Billy. If you get in I’ll try my luck next year. I’m as good as most of them who are in.”
The gentleman on the extreme right is intended for Mr. Webber, a well-known commission agent, who also sought municipal honours. He says, “ Wait a bit till I’ve raked out this sewer question. I think I can find I can make it alright next time.’’
I need hardly say that Mr. Thomas and Mr. Trounce were elected with a considerable majority, and Mr. Thomas was afterwards Mayor in 1881, whilst Alderman Trounce was elected Mayor in 1893, and is still one of the most popular and useful members of the City Council. His ripe judgement, and honesty of purpose always being above criticism. Mr. Thomas has progressed much since his entrance to the City Council Chamber, having been repeatedly returned to the House of Commons for the important constituency of East Glamorgan, and then honoured by being knighted by the late
Queen Victoria, and afterwards raised to the Peerage under the honoured name of Lord Pontypridd. He is one of Cardiff’s oldest residents, being born and bred in the city, and is the son of the late Mr. Daniel Thomas, who had the honour of being one of the contractors who built the West Bute Dock, and other large public works.
The above is reproduced from S.W.Allen’s “Reminiscences”, published by the Western Mail Ltd. in 1918. A consulting engineer, he came to Cardiff from Pembrokeshire in 1859 and lived at 14 Wordsworth Avenue.
Elected: Not elected:
A.Thomas L 915 Thomas Webber L 490
W.J.Trounce C 526 W.Ayres L 409
Marquess of Bute’s Estates, Glamorgan
Mr David Stewart’s Report 1824
PLAN No 10
Pen y Llan Farm – William Jones, Tenant.
No. Premises etc. State Quantity
- R. P.
- – Meadow 31 1 32
- – -do- 5 3 31
- – -do- 2 1 14
- – Arable 3 0 24
- – -do- 3 1 17
- – Pasture 2 2 3
7a. House,Buildings & Yard – 0 3 0
- – Arable 3 1 25
- – -do- 3 1 11
- – Meadow 8 3 20
- Cottage, garden & plantation 0 2 16
- – Meadow 6 0 19
- – Arable 5 0 39
- – Pasture 3 0 30
- – -do- 3 3 35
- – Arable 4 1 1
- – Pasture 3 1 12
22a – -do-& wood 2 2 31
- – Arable 7 1 37
A R P
102 0 17
- Plantation & Orchard 2 0 11
- Wood 0 2 26
- -do- 0 3 14
- -do- & Ruins of House 1 1 11
- Wood 0 1 34
- -do- 4 1 17
23a -do- 2 1 33
- -do- 0 1 1
12 1 27
114 2 4 Total
The record shows that William Jones was granted a lease for 21 years from 2 February 1824 for Pen y LLan Farm and Rectorial Tythes of same at an annual rental of £112.
KEY TO TITHE PLAN – PARISH OF ROATH – 1840
Tygwyn and Penlan
Owner: Marquess of Bute
Occupier: Willm. Evans, Junr.
Plot Nos. Name of Plot Plot Nos. Name of Plot
291 Waun Fawr 303 Penlon Cottage
292 Waun Isha 304 Cae ferin Pen
293 Plantation 305 ? Purmer
294 Waun ferin grober 306 Wood
295 Dwy Erw 307 Cae gena
296 Orchard 308 Wood
297 Homestead 309 Whicker
298 Cae dan Ty 310 Cae Cenol
299 Cae ysgubor 311 Cae Caled
300 Dwyer 312 Cair hendy
301 Cae Fynnon 313 Wood & pasture
302 Wood 314 – do. –
PORTION OF TITHE PLAN (TRACED) 1840
The portion here shown includes the whole of the Bute Pen-y-lan estate and part of Sir Charles Morgan’s adjoining estate. The shaded area represents land owned by Sir Charles Morgan which was later known as the Tredegar estate.
At the bottom left, Pen-y-lan Road sweeps round from its junction (off the map) with the present Albany Road, crosses the Roath Brook (near site of Pen-y-lan Library) and proceeds up the hill, taking a sharp bend (near Plot 303) to the left. A little farther up the hill a road branches off to the right to Llanedeyrn. At top right of the map, the road takes a right angle bend to the right. This is near the junction of Cefn-Coed Road and Cyncoed Road. A track, which has now disappeared, except for a small portion of a footpath alongside Lady Mary’s High School, formed the Roath parish boundary and made its way down towards Fairoak Farm. Here the boundary linked up with and proceeded along what is now Fairoak Road. At the extreme top left of the map the road goes over the Roath Brook.
The land of the Morgan (Tredegar) estate of Ty Draw (“Tir Draw” in Tithe Apportionment) is made up of plots 316 to 331. The farmstead of Ty Draw is at plot 321.
A comparison of David Stewarts map of 1824 with the Tithe Map 16 years later shows practically no changes on Bute land. What David Stewart calls “Pen Llan” is described in the Tithe Apportionment schedule as “Ty Gwyn and Penlan”. The farmstead itself is at Plot 297. It gave its name to the present Ty Gwyn Road. On the site of the old farm was built the Convent of the Good Shepherd and when that was demolished, Heathfield House School. Ty Gwyn or, as it was called, “Pen-y-lan Farm”, in 1824 and 1840 had attached to it some 114 acres of meadow, arable, pasture and woodland.
It was bounded on the east and south-east by the road going up Pen-y-lan Road and its land extended as far as the Roath Brook on the south-west. The old course of the brook ran through what is now the middle of the recreation ground but it was diverted into a channel along the side of the ground parallel with Ty-Draw Road at the end of last century. It will be noticed from the maps that the brook had already been canalised by 1824 but only where it flowed through Bute land. The site of the modern bridge is more or less the same as the old one. On the far side of the brook, where the Roath Park recreation ground and Ninian Road now stands, was Skibor Fach Farm – another portion of the Bute estate which is included on another of David Stewart’s maps and terriers. The Bute Pen-y-lan estate was sandwiched between Sir Charles Morgan’s land in the north-east and south-west, which is not surprising when it is realised that it was in the 18th century all owned by Sir Charles Morgan. In the southernmost area of Pen-y-lan the Tredegar Estate proceeded with urbanisation and constructed a network of streets at the time of the Boer War, as many of the street names testify.
PLAN No.9 (Crwys Bychan, Pen y Wain and Skibor Fach)
In the parish of St.John Cardiff – Crwys Bychan Joseph Butler, Tenant
No. Premises etc. State Quantity
A R P
- – Pasture 1 3 26
- – Arable 2 3 1
- – -do- 3 0 15
- – -do- 3 3 7
A R P
11 2 9
In the Parish of Roath – Pen y Wain Farm – Edward Richards, Tenant
- R. P.
- – Arable 4 3 19
- – – 0 0 4
- Heath Allotment Arable 5 2 4
- – do. – Pasture 5 0 12
- – do. – Arable 5 3 3
- – do – Arable 4 2 37
- – do.- Arable 5 0 15
- Garden – 0 0 38
- – do – – 0 0 17
- Yard & Lane – 1 0 38
- – Pasture 1 0 0
- House, Bldgs, Rick Yard & Garden 0 2 27
- – Arable 6 1 17
- – Arable 5 2 28
- – Meadow 5 3 32
- – Arable 4 0 23
- – Arable 5 0 28
61 2 22
- Wood 1 0 17
62 2 39
Skibor Fach Farm – Edward Richards, Tenant
- – Arable 3 2 16
- – Arable 3 2 36
- – Meadow 5 1 3
- – Arable 0 2 35
- – Arable & Pasture 7 0 22
- – Arable 6 3 28
- – Arable 0 3 4
28 0 24
102 1 32
Manuscript Note added at foot of document: A cottage and garden purchased of Mr William Williams, Allensbank. 1835
PEN-Y-WAUN. J.H.M in C.R.V.401-2. (The end of the meadow):
A piece of land at the bottom of the lane (Pen-y-waun Road) which leads up the hill from Roath Park to the main entrance of the cemetery. It is mentioned as a farm in Roath parish by the Heath Enclosure Award of 1809. North of it stood Cyndda-bach (q.v.) an old thatched cottage that was blown down one stormy night in 1895.
Land Tax assessments:
1788 -1789. Owner = Mr.Hurst. Ccc. = John Williams.
- Owner = Earl of Bute. Occ. = Mrs. Williams
- Owner = M. of Bute. Occ. = Lear(n) Williams
- Owner = M. of Bute. Occ. = Edward Richards
- Owner = M. of Bute. Occ. = Edward Richards
Pen-y-Wain Farm is the subject of an estate map in 1824 by David Stewart.
At that time, Edward Richards was the tenant of the 61 acre farm. His tenancy also included Skibbor Fach Farm and same parcels of land at Pengam. He paid an inclusive rent of £200 to Bute for this land and for Fairoak Farm. The lease for 21 years commenced 2 February 1824.
The Tithe Apportionment (1840) shows the homestead at Plot 243. Total area = 91a.1r.11p. Owner = Bute. Occ. = Edwd. Richards. The preamble to the Apportionment containing the terms of the Agreement refers to the estate called Pen y wain Farm, approximately 93 acres, as being absolutely exempt from Tithe by prescription – John Crichton Stuart, Marquess of Bute being the owner. It may be that the exemption from payment of Tithe stemmed from its commutation at the time of the Heath Enclosure Award.
The “Edward Richards” here referred to may have been Edward Priest Richards (1792-1867), the County Treasurer, Town Clerk and Agent to the Marquess of Bute.
PITTICKS. Tithe Appt. Plot 111. 6a.3r.11p and Plot 111a. 2a.0r.3lp.
Both arable. Owner = Sir Charles Morgan. Occ.= Wm. Evans, senior.
PINFOLD. Roath Keynsham Surveys of 1650 and 1702 refer to a “pinfold”
– the village pound, which stood to the north of Roath church.
PLAS- NEWYDD. J.H.M. in C.R.V.402:
(the new mansion). A large house constructed in the 18th century and surrounded by elms. Sometime after its erection it was termed Roath Lodge, but on its being subsequently castellated or crenellated the name was altered to Roath Castle – whence the name Castle Road. The building is now best known by its original name Plas-newydd. From the family of Mr. Edward Priest Richards this property passed by marriage to the Mackintosh of Mackintosh, its present owner, who has built many streets of small dwelling houses on the land surrounding the mansion. Plas-newydd stands some distance south of Albany Road and east of Castle Road.
We have not yet ascertained the exact date the building was erected but clues provided in the baptismal records, point to c.1830. It does not appear in Thomas Ridd’s Directory of 1813.
In the Bishops” Transcripts for Roath, when his children were baptised on 30 September 1827 and 7 April 1829, the abode of John Matthews Richards is given as “Roath Court”. On the occasion of the baptism of his son, Edward Priest, on 5 March 1831, the abode of the father is given as “Plasnewydd, Roath”
Tithe Apportionmaent,1840. Plot 196. Roath Castle, garden etc., 3a.0r.17p.
Owner/Occupier: John Matthew Richards.
Lewis’s TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY, 1833 Edition states:
The parish contains several good gentlemen’s houses, of which Plas Newydd in the castellated style, the property of T.M.Richards Esq., is the principal.
In “Antiquarian Remains etc. in Glamorgan” by John Rowlands, 1865, under “Roath”, mention is made of Plas-newydd as:
” …. the property of the Richards – the present heir is an infant. The late Mr Richards was killed by falling off his horse – see the Roath Inscriptions.”
The inscription to which Rowlands alludes is the one in St. Margaret ’s Church in memory of Edward Priest Richards of Plas-newydd, Esq., who died 12th of December 1856, age 25 years.
PLWCA LANE or HEOL-Y-PLWCA was the original name of City Road until it was changed to Castle Road in 1874. It was re-named City Road in 1905.
It formed part of the western boundary of the parish of Roath. J.H.M. in C.R.V.403 states that it means “the road to the pleck”. A pleck is evidently a plot or close. J.H.M. refers to a deed of 1811 in which the pleck is described as “All that close of 7 acres called Plwca, parcel of the lands of Roath Court.”
PONT EVAN QUINT. “A stone bridge by which the Cefn Coed Road crosses the Nant mawr between Fairoak and Cymdda bach. (1653, 1702)” – C.R. V. 404
PONT LLEICHI. See also “Nant Fawr”. .
The following is quoted from C.R.V.404:
“Pont-Lickey” (The bridge of Saint Lleici or Lucy). A small stone bridge by which the Cefn coed Road crossed the Nant Mawr in the parish of Roath. The same name was given to a thatched cottage close by (1705). The cottage has been demolished, the course of the brook altered, the road
widened and the bridge replaced by a level structure of iron (1895 – 1900). The very name of the place is almost forgotten. Even the Ordnance Chart has it wrong, calling it “Pont -y-llechau” (the bridge of flat stones) – a name which it never at any time bore. Lleici was a female saint of the
early church in South Wales. “Pontlickey Bridge” occurs in documents in 1861 and “Pontlecky Bridce” in 1864.
“Pont Llyki” and “Pont Lykie” are forms occurring in the Roath Keynsham Survey 1702.
On 11 March 1889 the Borough Engineer was asked by the Council to prepare the necessary plans and drawings for a new bridge over the Roath Brook at Pen-y-lan Road and the following December the widening of Pen-y-lan Road and the construction of a new bridge over the brook adjoining Roath Park was authorised. On 9 November 1891 it was reported to the Council that the work of rebuilding the bridge across Roath Brook and the widening of Pen-y-lan Road was in full progress.
PONT-LECKY HOUSE. In the will of George Thomas 1705, the testator leaves to his nephew, another George Thomas, inter alia, the lease of the land and all the household stuff in Pont Llycky house, and one rick of hay towards the reparation of the house.
A monumental inscription in St Margaret’s Churchyard referred to Henry Oram who died at Pontlecky House 17 June 1887 age 67 and his wife, Ann, who died 23 December 1894. He was, I believe, a deaf and dumb shoe-maker. In the 1851 census he is shown as a “cordwainer master employing two men”. In 1871 his occupation is given as a market gardener.
PONT MARTHOG. Name of a bridge referred to in the Roath Keynshan Surveys.
PONT ROATH. Roath Bridge. See also “Peder Erw Pont. Roath”. This was the bridge carrying the highway (Newport Road) over the Roath Brook near Pengam.
PONT-Y-CELYN (the bridge of the holly trees). Also called “Celyn Bridge”. A brick structure by which the old foot-path is carried east and west across the Nant-mawr, near the Celyn farm. – C.R.V.404.
(Sketch by J.H.M.is in C.R.IV.viii).
Tithe Appt. Plot 337. Arable 5a.2r.30p. part of Upper Llwyn-y-grant.
Owner = Thos. Wm. Edwards. Occ.= David William.
A piece of land in Adamsdown (1440) probably identical with Portmanmoor .- C.R.V.405.
A piece of meadow land “at the forks” in the lordship of Roath occupied in 1492 by the Gatekeeper of Cardiff Castle. The accounting Minister at that date did not profess to know where the land lay, but appears to have supposed it and Wardrobe Leas to be identical with Portmanmoor. – C.R.V.405
The G.R.O. copy of the Schedule of Penrice and Margam Manuscripts 4th Series. Page 143 No.2007 refers to a Grant (13th Century) by Nicholas Herward to John le Pork of his meadow in Port-manne-mede, charged with an annual payment of one shilling worth of wax for St. Mary’s candle in St. Mary’s church of Kaerdif at PORTMANMEDE (Continued)
Michaelmas – for the souls health of his father and mother three marks silver paid by the grantee.
Page 55 No.155 of the same Schedule refers to a Grant to Margam Abbey by John Le Porc of two burgages in Cardiff and a meadow which he held of Nicholas Herward in Port mane mede, together with the charter of the land, the Abbey paying one pennyworth of wax towards the candle of the B.V.M. of Cardif at Michaelmas.
A strip of marshy land along the Severn shore in the parish of Roath, just outside the tam of Cardiff, between Adamsdown and the sea.b It was the perquisite of the Portman, or Gatekeeper of the Castle, which office seems to have been hereditary in a family thence called by the surname Le Port, or Porter. The earliest whose name occurs, Adam le Port, may be identical with Adam Kyngot mentioned in the municipal charter of 1331. According to an inquisition of 1440, Portmanmoor was a part of Adamsdown. The name is preserved in Portmanmoor Road, a fine new thoroughfare leading from Roath to the shore. – C.R.V.405.
PORTWAY. A general term applying to a path leading to a market town which normally would have been a gateway. A map of 1789 has the name “Portway” for Green Lane (Broadway).
POTTESMOR. Land near the Splot in the manor of Cardiff and Roath, referred to in a Minister’s Accounts of 1392. – C.R.V.406
PRIESTS WEIR, The. “Prests Were”. A weir in the lordship of Roath mentioned in a Minister’s Accounts of 1492. – C.R.V. 406.
PULKEY. According to Mr. Corbett’s annotated map, this was a place on the Severn shore in the parish of Roath where a brook flows into the sea, east of Splott.- C.R.V.406.
PUM-ERW (the five acres). Land on the shore of the East Moor (1764) per J.S. Corbett. – C.R.V.406.
PUM ERW DYRUS. 1777. Splott, Tredegar Rental (N.L.W. TRED.56/44).
Field No.14. 6 acres.
PUMER Y SPLOTT ISHA. 1777. Splott, Tredegar Rental. (N.L.W. TRED.56/44). Field No.29. 7 acres.
PUMER HEOL Y BRINDONN. 1777. Splott, Tredegar Rental. (N.L.W. TRED. 56/44).
Field No.37. 6a.1r.0p.
PUMP ERW’R CASTELL. (The 5 Castle Acres). Tithe Appt: Plot 284.
Pasture 5a.1r.36p. Owner = Sir Chas. Morgan