Norman Biggs – Welsh rugby international killed by a poisoned arrow.

Headlines

Norman Biggs portrait

There are so many headlines I could have used for this article such as ‘Wales’s youngest rugby international‘ or ‘The fastest man in the world?‘ or ‘Where’s his missing memorial?‘.  I was spoilt for choice.

I’ve been researching Norman Biggs now for a couple of years – a fascinating character.  It’s not just him – there’s a story to tell about the whole of the Biggs family, but let’s concentrate on Norman for now.

Norman’s early life

Norman Witchell Biggs was his full name.  Yes, I thought it was a misprint too and it should have been Mitchell, but no, it really was Witchell.   He was born in 1870 in St Andrew’s Place in the middle of Cardiff, to John Biggs, owner of the South Wales Brewery and Emily Sophia Biggs née Clark.  Norman was baptised a few months later in St Mary the Virgin church on Bute Street.  This confused me for a while as it’s not the nearest Anglican church to St Andrew’s Place until I found out that the Biggs family had strong associations with the church; there is a plaque in the church to Norman’s grandparents John and Eliza Biggs.  Perhaps they were benefactors when the church was being built.

In the 1881 census we find Norman Biggs in Lewinsdale School, Weston-Super-Mare.  I’m always amazed by how much travel there seemed to be between Cardiff and Somerset 150 years ago.   There is no sign of the school there nowadays, just Lewinsdale Lodge, now a B&B.

When Norman Biggs returns to live in Cardiff he attends Cardiff Proprietary School, also confusingly known as Cardiff College.   I say confusingly because the building was on Dumfries Place, and later went on the become part of the University and later still the Student’s Union.

Cardiff College

Cardiff College building on Dumfries Place, later became part of the University and later still the Student’s union (Pic credit: Cardiff Libraries)

Norman’s sporting prowess started to show though at a young age.  In 1884, aged just 13, he is playing for Cardiff College (Cardiff Preparatory School) against the University 2nd team and scores two tries. A year later the paper reports Norman, aged 14, playing cricket for Cardiff College versus Llwynypia 2nd XI.

International debut

In 1887 Norman Biggs plays first match for Cardiff on March 9th 1887, aged just 16 years 4 months and scores a try.  His speed makes him a natural winger.  He had a meteoric rise and a year later, he is picked to play for Wales against New Zealand. He becomes the youngest player to play for Wales aged 18 years 1 month 19 days. He held that record for 120 years until Tom Prydie made his Wales debut in 2010 at age of 18 years and 25 days.

Norman Biggs in Wales jersey

Norman Biggs in Wales jersey (pic credit: Wikipedia)

Norman’s first game for Wales didn’t go well. Although Wales won Biggs was ‘palpably nervous’.  The game was held in Swansea where the crowd was hostile towards Wales players from Cardiff and the east of Wales. Newspaper quotes include: ‘The crowd positively pooh-poohed Biggs’, ‘Biggs I am bound to admit disappointed me’, ‘He is a rattling good man, next to George Morgan, the best in Wales’.

A week later, on 29th December  1888, Norman Biggs faced the same tourists, this time as part of the Cardiff team. Biggs had been disappointing in his international debut, but regained his form on the pitch at the Cardiff Arms Park. Within 90 seconds of the start of the match, Biggs scored a ‘sparkling try’.  Biggs should have scored again, but dropped the ball after crossing the line in the slippery conditions.  Cardiff won by a goal and a try to one try.

1888-89New Zealand Native team

1888-89 New Zealand Native team

In January 1889 Norman is picked again to play for Wales, this time against Scotland, but pulls out as part of the ongoing dispute between east and west Wales clubs.

In March 1889 the papers report on Norman taking part in a debate at Cardiff University on smoking, speaking on the side that smoking causes harm and winning.  That’s pretty insightful considering it was 60 years before the link between smoking and ill health was proven scientifically.

On March 2nd 1889 he plays again for Wales in Swansea, this time against Ireland. Wales lost with Ireland scoring two unconverted tries.  Biggs had a bad game being at fault for at least one of the Ireland tries when an overhead pass of his was intercepted. Wales finished bottom of the table that year; bottom of three – England didn’t participate that season.

Let’s take another break from the rugby now for this story that demonstrates the athletic ability of Norman Biggs.  It is reporting on the Cardiff University sports day on May 11th 1889: ‘The lion of the day was Norman Biggs, well-known Cardiff Football player who pulled off the 100 yds, 220 yds, the quarter, the hurdles, the high jump, the prize for throwing the cricket ball, and then crowned a phenomenally successful day by bringing himself and partner in first at the three-legged race’. How many modern day rugby internationals would take part in a three-legged race!

Reports of him partaking in a fun three-legged race are somewhat contradicted by his appearance in team photos.  He always seems somewhat grumpy and surly.

Cardiff 1888-89 team Norman Biggs middle row 2nd from left

Cardiff 1888-89 team Norman Biggs, middle row 2nd from left. perching on a backwards facing chair (pic credit: Cardiff Rugby Museum)

Fastest man in the world?

Watching Norman Biggs sprint down the wing with ball in hand must have been an exhilarating experience given his outstanding pace. There’s even an argument for saying he could have been the fastest man in the world.   In 1889 Norman Biggs goes Cambridge University.  It is not clear what he studied or whether he ever graduated. Here’s an extract from an obituary of Norman Biggs:

“Leaving the Cardiff College he graduated at Cardiff and took up his residence at Trinity Hall.  Here one of his first accidents occurred.  In playing football he had a couple of ribs broken and the necessary rest robbed him of his blue. He however made a name in sprinting and it is on the record that he did the 100 yds in even time.  He had against him such fine flyers as Monypenny.  It was a remarkable thing that in the 100 yds Norman could beat Monypenny but in the 120 yds the latter could always reach the line first, the explanation being that Norman was the better starter.”

The Monypenny in the quote above was Charlton Monypenny.  Here’s what it says about him in Wikipedia: “While at Cambridge he achieved two running records, the World Record for the 150-yard dash (14.8 secs) and the Cambridge quarter of a mile track record (49.5 secs) which stood until 1931.  In 1891 Monypenny was recognised as the seconded fastest man in the world behind American Luther Cary, recording a time of 10.8 seconds in the 100-metre sprint on 22 July. The next year, although recording an identical time of 10.8 seconds, he was judged the joint fastest men in the world that year, along with American athlete Cecil Lee”

Put those two articles together, the fact that Biggs could beat Monypenny over 100 yds and the fact that Monypenny was judged one of the fastest men in the world, and it could be argued that Norman Biggs was possibly the world’s fastest.  An obituary and Wikipedia are hardly ‘primary sources’ for history researchers I admit but it makes you wonder. Add to it that he was only doing athletics because an injury prevented him playing rugby and those sprint times would have been made from a standing start rather than using blocks or spiked shoes and it is all pretty remarkable stuff.

International Success

Biggs plays again for Wales in 1892 against Ireland but again ends up on the losing side.  In 1893 however his fortunes change and he finds himself part of the first Wales team to win a Triple Crown. On January 7th at the Arms Park, Wales beat England 12-11 in what has become known as the ‘Devil’s match’ because fires were lit around the ground the previous night to keep the pitch frost-free and enable the game to go ahead. Biggs scored.  ‘After each of the three quarters had handled the ball, Norman Biggs having cleverly been given the ball by Conway Rees, sprinting away from Lockwood, got the better of Field, and scored a really fine try’.

Triple Crown medal belonging to Frank Hill in Cardiff Rugby Museum

Medal awarded to players of Wales’s first triple crown winning side. This one belonged to Frank Hill and is on display at Cardiff Rugby club Museum.

The following month Wales travel to Scotland and win 9-0 and again Norman Biggs scores a try. The 1893 away game against Scotland is described as Biggs’ best international match and ‘his speed and general play were the main factors in securing the first victory of the Principality over Scotland at Scotland’.

In March Wales play Ireland at Stradey Park, Llanelli.  Wales win 2-0 though a try from Gould.  Ireland fielded one more forward than Wales (it was a choice how many forwards and backs were playing at the time).  Quotes from the papers included: ‘Gould and Norman Biggs time after time stopped rushes, the later player saving his front rank by screw punting’, ‘the most uninteresting international contest for years past’.

Cricketing Skills

In the summer of 1893 Norman plays cricket for Glamorgan against a Cardiff team that includes his brother Selwyn, thereby becoming one of a select band of players to play both cricket for Glamorgan and rugby for Wales.  Selwyn in fact later goes on to play for Glamorgan and become their opening bowler for a number of years.

Club Loyalty

Club rugby was somewhat different in the 1890s. Players weren’t contractually bound to a club as they are now and sometimes turned out for other clubs if they found themselves in different parts of the country.  Norman Biggs played for London Welsh in matches against both Cardiff and Swansea in 1890.  He also plays a fair bit for Richmond over the years. At one time in 1893 he gets collared by a reporter on his return to Cardiff.  Norman explained ‘he was in London for a fortnight seeing a doctor every day, after he had an operation.  Playing for Richmond there was no need to exert himself and nobody cared who won’.

Conclusion of International Career

Norman Biggs plays two more matches for Wales.  In January 1894 against England at Birkenhead Park in front of a crown of 7,000 Wales suffered a heavy defeat, losing 24-3.  In a post-match interview Biggs was asked why he had failed to tackle Harry Bradshaw, who scored the first try; Biggs responded “Tackle him? It was as much as I could do to get out of his way!”

In March 1894 Wales beat Ireland 3-0 in a game where all the backs were from Cardiff.  The very next international saw Norman’s younger brother Selwyn selected for the first time, the brothers missing each other by just one match. Selwyn also goes on to have a very successful international career.

Norman Biggs George North comparison

Norman Biggs compared to today’s Wales winger George North – note the difference in weight!

Cardiff Captain

In the 1893-94 season Norman Biggs captains Cardiff.   During the season Biggs scored 58 conversions, 25 tries and two dropped goals bringing his points tally to 199 points, a record that remained till 1972–73 when it was surpassed by John Davies.

1893-4 Cardiff Rugby Club.  Norman Biggs captain with ball and Selwyn Biggs top right (picture credit: Cardiff Rugby Club Museum)

Biggs played for Cardiff from the 1886–87 season through to 1898–99.  He played in 166 matches for Cardiff, was one of the highest scoring players the club has produced. Biggs ended his Cardiff career with 107 tries, four less than another of his brothers Cecil. He scored five or more try conversions in a single match on seven occasions, six in the same season (1893-94), against Gloucester, Bristol, London Welsh, Penygraig, Exeter and Cardiff & D.R.U.

The last notable club Biggs represented was Bath.  He turned out in the 1886-89 seasons sometimes.  His decision to go to Bath was probably guided by the fact that his father’s brewery may have had an interest in the area. Some match reports also mention him and Selwyn promising to turn up but not and instead playing for Richmond.  Norman was said to be captaining the Bath senior team during the 1899–1900 season but did not appear in the match reports, instead diverted by the next stage in his life.

 

The Boer War

On 5th January 1900 he joined the Glamorgan Imperial Yeomanry, a volunteer force. In the British army at the time the officers were from the gentry and the professional middle classes and the recruits from the poorest sections of society. You wonder how much horse riding experience Norman Biggs had before joining the yeomanry.  It is true that the Biggs house Oldwell, Penylan, Cardiff did have stables so he had probably built up some experience.

Norman Biggs signs up

Norman Biggs signs up

His exploits in the Boer War are relatively well reported in the papers.  People were naturally keen to hear how one of their rugby stars was fairing.  In May 1900 he had arrived in South Africa and sends a drawing home to his brothers which was published in the Western Mail.  The letter included a picture of the cook and wood gatherers.  At this time his unit was still undergoing training near Cape Town.  The papers also report Biggs was keen for a photograph he’d sent to be forwarded to the Conservative Club in St Mary’s Street, so we learn of his political affiliation.

 

 

By December 1900 his unit is on the front line.  A letter from R S Jenkin the old Swansea football forward describes how Norman Biggs the ex-international three quarter was wounded.  He says “Six miles from Vrede, our left rear flankers were fired on by almost a dozen Boers.  We on the right flank heard the firing and saw the state of affairs and opened fire.  Shortly the rearguard came back and things got interesting.  Norman Biggs, G F Williams (late of Llandovery) and Sergeant Thomas were in the centre and as soon as they heard the firing on the right they concluded that the right flank was in trouble.  They came across and Norman, mad like, went galloping towards the Boer fire, in spite of orders to the contrary being shouted to him. He having got the idea into his head that I and the others were concerned, and he meant to find out.  Anyhow, he got within a hundred yards and found things getting hot, when he was wounded in the uppermost part of his thigh.  He turned about but had only got a few yards when his horse was shot dead.  He lay down behind it, and was about to aim, when he saw the Boers mounting and getting into position to cut off his retreat, so he picked himself up and ran off.  He was shortly picked up by one of our officers, who put him on a horse and caught hold of the stirrup himself.  The horse shield (sic), and Norman once more embraced mother earth.  Then Major Wyndham-Quin put him on a horse, and this time he was taken in safety to the hospital.  He is now much better as it is only a flesh wound.”

Biggs injured in 1900

map credit: Google

Norman was sent initially to the military hospital in Harrismith.   On December 19th 1900 he returns to UK on board the hospital ship Simla with 284 other men. It seems he was not home long.

Hospital ship Simla

Hospital ship Simla

In February it is announced he is to join ‘Paget’s Horse’, an elite horseback unit, as a Captain.  He returns to South Africa but in May we read he is in hospital in Winberg with fever.  In September he is discharged from hospital and in November fighting again. We don’t read much about him in the following year.  He arrives home in late 1902.

Paget's Horse Yeomenary

Paget’s Horse (picture credit: Look and Learn)

Extended military career

On returning home Norman appears to have made a decision to extend his military career rather than return to the family brewing business which by now was in its twilight years.  He joins the regular army.  He is initially stationed in Cardiff Barracks training recruits, then Aldershot, then Hythe where he takes a course in the School of Musketry.

He serves as the District Superintendent of the Northern Nigerian Constabulary. The papers say he returned to Nigeria in October 1907 having been on leave in England that summer, so must have been there previously at some stage.

Poisoned Arrow

He was killed 27 Feb 1908 at Chinuku, Northern Nigeria, after being hit by a poisoned arrow in a brush with natives whilst on patrol duty. Newspaper reports say he was trying to arrest some ‘Pagans’ who had been pillaging and were hiding in a village.  On approaching the village they were attacked.

Biggs did not reload but instead rode onto the next village to allay fears of the natives who would have seen the neighbouring village burning.  His intention was to warn them that their force had no quarrel with them and that they had nothing to fear.

The papers report that unfortunately his mission was misunderstood and before he could get close enough to explain his mission he was shot in the thigh by a poisoned arrow. Biggs pulled out the arrow and a fellow officer cauterised it with a red hot knife. Biggs was removed by horse to Sakaba, some 50 miles away but he died four days later. He was buried at Fort Sakaba with full military honours attended by 30 officers. It is theorised that his heart may have been weakened having had a couple of bouts of malaria.  The arrow was sent home for analysis, but I can’t find any record of the outcome of the analysis.

Nigeria and Norman Biggs place of death marked by red pin

Chinuku, Northern Nigeria (map credit: Google)

The poison used in poison darts varies throughout the world.  In South America it is often taken from a venomous frog, in southern Africa from a poisonous beetle and in Northern Nigeria from the plant Strophanthus.  Cardiac poisons tend to be fast-acting.  The fact that Biggs died four days after being hit by the arrow would seem to indicate to me he probably died of a resulting hemorrhage rather than the poison itself – but why spoil a good story.

Norman Biggs’s Grave

The grave of Norman Biggs is marked with a simple metal cross that is talked about in a YouTube video.  It looks in remarkable condition even after all this time.  The cross appears to read:  In loving memory of Norman W Biggs of Cardiff, Great Britain. Cpt 3rd Welch Rgt. DSG N Nigeria  Killed in action. Died 27 Feb 1908.

The cross on grave of Norman Biggs

The cross on grave of Norman Biggs

There is a fascinating YouTube video interviewing a local man who seems to be saying that it is thought they were missionaries but the locals thought they were cannibals. Click the CC button at the foot of the YouTube video to get the subtitles.

YouTube video stills

Cardiff honours Biggs

The news of the death of Norman Biggs was widely reported in the papers.  A large service was held in his honour on March 16th 1908 at St John’s church, Cardiff.  Mr W T Morgan and a large number of Cardiff Rugby Club assembled at the Drill Hall in Dumfries Place and marched along Queen Street to St John’s along with members of the Glamorgan Yeomanry and the Welch Regiment.  The members of the Wales rugby team were unfortunately delayed on the train on their return from Ireland so arrived 90 minutes after the service.

Norman Biggs Memorial Service

I always think it’s best to treat obituaries with a note of caution but they do make interesting reading.   One obituary says that at the age of 16 Norman Biggs was chosen to play for Wales but that his headmaster, Mr Birbeck Terry,  vetoed it on the grounds that he was not sufficiently well set to stand the gruelling game of twenty years ago. The obit says that he worked for his father initially at the Salisbury Road brewery and then at the Canton Cross Brewery.

Another obituary says Biggs had ‘a fund of humour yet could be caustic in his criticism of colleagues, but he was a good judge of character and seldom mistook his man, realising that an exaggerated compliment was the best way to bring out the best in some men and a whip of sarcasm the best for others’.

The Missing Memorial

A year later on March 27th 1909 the Weekly Mail reports of a meeting held at the Angel Hotel to discuss the idea of a memorial tablet to Norman Biggs and that St John’s or St Andrew’s church commended itself.  The meeting was attended by members of Cardiff Rugby and Cricket clubs, the Glamorgan Yeomanry and the Welch Regiment.  The vicar of St John’s was even on the committee.

I have visited both churches and never found a memorial tablet or memorial window.

Two years later another interesting snippet appears in The Clifton Society of May 16th  1912.  The idea now seems to be the idea is for a stained glass window at St John’s and it has been placed in the hands of Cardiff Football Club.

The Clifton Society May 16th 1912

I am still baffled that this remarkable athlete is remembered by a simple metal cross in Nigeria but not in any way in his home city of Cardiff and am left wondering the reason for that.


 

Many thanks to rugby and military historian Gwyn Prescott for his assistance, especially in the early days of my research into Norman Biggs.

I have a talk prepared on Norman Biggs and the Biggs family.  If you are a member of a group that may be interested in hearing the talk please don’t hesitate to get in contact.

Norman Biggs poster cropped

Remembering Frank Gaccon

The only public war memorial in our ‘area of interest’, the ancient parish of Roath, is the one outside St Saviour’s church in Splott.  That leaves a lot of the people who lost their lives in WWI, WWII and other conflicts not remembered.  One way to rectify that would be to have a ‘virtual’ memorial, in some ways following the good example of Grangetown Local History Society in their work.  I have started to assemble a Roath virtual war memorial but it is early days yet.

One way to derive a list of the war casualties is to visit the Commonwealth War Graves Commission website.  There you can search for specific casualties or search by keyword.  We are lucky in that the suburbs we are interested in have fairly unique names; Splott, Adamsdown, Roath, Penylan, Cathays, Cyncoed etc. I looked at the first name on the Cyncoed list and found Francis Wilberforce Gaccon.  As I began to research the person behind the name more deeply I began to uncover his interesting life story.

Francis ‘Frank’ Wilberforce Gaccon was born on 6th April 1888.  His father was Watkin Gaccon, originally from Aberdare and a marine engine engineer.  His mother was Alice Charlotte Morgan originally from Overton, Gloucestershire on the banks of the River Severn. Frank grows up in 96 Habershon Street, Splott where he attended Splottlands School and Cardiff University College (1904-11).

Evening Express 25th Jan 1908

An early picture of Frank Gaccon

He followed his father into engineering receiving his training with Guest, Keen and Nettlefolds.   After holding various positions with this firm he joined the staff of Nash’s Autocars, Cardiff, and after two years started his own business as a garage and engineering works company.  During WWI he worked for Bute Docks Engineers and Shipping Company under the Admiralty fitting engines to lifeboats of hospital ships.

After WWI he worked for a year for the Royal insurance Company before again starting up his own successful company Frank Gaccon & Co Consulting Engineer and Damage Assessors serving all the leading insurance companies for South Wales. In 1926 he was elected as a full member of the Institute of Automobile Engineers  His head office offices were based in Charles Street, Cardiff.

Frank had a very successful sporting career.  He started his career playing football then converted to rugby playing initially for Penylan and in January 1908 is talked about as a promising forward playing for Cardiff Reserves.  By December that year he is already in the Cardiff first team playing against Australia.

Frank Gaccon rugby player

Frank Gaccon in Cardiff Rugby Club shirt (photo credit: Cardiff Fire & Rescue, Gaccon family)

He played 105 times for Cardiff Rugby Club including against Australia in 1908 (Cardiff won 24-8)  and against South Africa in 1912 (Cardiff lost 6-7).  One later newspaper report indicates he may have played for Wales but that appears erroneous.  Frank was elected captain of Cardiff for the first official post-war season 1919-20 but he had to resign after a few games owing to injury.  He was captain Cardiff Rugby (Wartime Charities) XV against the New Zealand Army team in 1919.  The game was played in front of a crowd of 10,000 in Cardiff and ended up scoreless.  He was also Honorary Secretary of the Cardiff Rugby (Wartime Charities) XV charity that raised almost £2000 during the season, £100,000 in today’s money.

 

 

Cardiff Rugby (war charity) Football Team 1919

Frank Gaccon (with rugby ball) captaining Cardiff Rugby (war charity) Football Team 1919 (Photo Credit: Cardiff Rugby Museum)

After finishing his rugby playing career he went onto enjoy yachting and became commodore of Barry Yacht Club.

He married three times.  In 1917 he married Gertrude Alice Hamlin but sadly their marriage was short lived as she passed away a year later. At that time he was living in 8 Agincourt Road, Roath.   In 1920 he marries Lily Rodwell in Leicester and they have a daughter together. Lily passes away in 1939 and in 1940 Frank marries Lilian Plowman.

Daughter of Frank Gaccon visiting Cardiff Fire Brigade HQ 2017

Daughter of Frank Gaccon visiting Cardiff Fire Brigade HQ 2017 (Photo credit: Cardiff Fire and Rescue)

When WWII was declared Frank sacrificed his business and joined Cardiff Auxiliary Fire Service (A.F.S.) and became Divisional Commander of the Cardiff A.F.S.  He was killed in Newport Road whilst on duty on 3rd March, 1941.   That was a heavy night of fire bombing in Cardiff.  It was the night Roath Road Wesleyan church on Newport Road, at the junction of City Road, was destroyed.  There was also damage on Newport Road to the nurse’s hostel and further east along Newport Road  at the junction of Albany Road.  I had assumed he was killed in one of these events so it came as a shock when I later discovered he was killed when the car he was driving whilst on duty was damaged by a bomb. It is reported that after fighting five fires he was motoring to get more hose when the high explosive bomb killed him. He was 53 years of age at the time and living at 153 Cyncoed Road.  He is buried at Cathays Cemetery, Plot: M 948a.

Gravestone at Cathays Cemetery

Frank Gaccon Headstone (photo credit: Friends of Cathays Cemetery)

As a slight aside, he may also have been killed if he had still been living in Agincourt Road as it was on that night that residents of numbers 10 and 12 Agincourt Road were killed and the night that neighbouring Marborough Road School was damaged beyond repair.

 

Thayer’s Ice Cream – the scoop.

There can’t be many more evocative old shop names in the Roath area than Thayer’s.  Drop the name Thayer’s into any conversation you are having with a mature Cardiffian and soon they will be reminiscing about their favourite flavour ice cream or their preferred form whether it be cone or tub.

Thayers - photo from John Thayer

Thayer’s at 13 Wellfield Road (Photo courtesy of the Thayer family)

I was fortunate enough lately to meet John Thayer who kindly shared with me some of the history of the family business that centred around the shop in 13 Wellfield Road.

Thayer’s  dairy ice cream business was started by John’s father Albert Cyril Thayer. The Thayer family originated from Cwm in the Ebbw valley where Cyril’s father Joseph Thayer had owned a grocery business.  Joseph Thayer was born in Llanhilleth in 1888.  He originally worked at the colliery but following a serious flood, forcing him to leave his tools behind, he changed career, moved to Cwm and opened a grocery shop.

The Wellfield Road premises were purchased by the Thayer family just prior to WWII.  For ten years before that it had been a dairy shop owned by F.I. Day.  Cyril Thayer served in WWII and after coming out of the army, married Irene Jackson and opened Cardiff’s first self-service grocery store at 13 Wellfield Road.  What great foresight.  Who would have ever thought that self-serve grocery shopping would ever catch on!

October 1955 Western Mail

October 1955 Western Mail

 

The business went on to be very successful.  Strong contacts were built up with local suppliers.  Eggs from Mrs Johnson’s farm in Usk and turkeys from another source, milk from a nearby dairy, being some prime examples.

Another example of Cyril Thayer’s foresight came later when he witnessed a nearby business struggling to make ice cream of high enough quality to sell and instead having to throw it away.  Cyril thought he could do better than that and the rest as they say is history.  Via their grocery business Cyril Thayer already had good access to the materials needed to make ice cream.

As the years passed competition in the self-service grocery sector increased but by now Thayer’s dairy ice cream was so popular that the shop business could be sustained on ice cream alone.  The back of the shop morphed into an ice cream parlour serving knickerbockerglories and sundaes and the front into an area to sell ice cream and cream to walk-in customers.  Queues could often be seen snaking back out of the shop and along Wellfield Road.

Thayers newer shop, Wellfield Road, Cardiff  - photo from John Thayer

A later view of Thayer’s in Wellfield Road (photo courtesy of Thayer family)

So what was the secret of Thayer’s dairy ice cream?  Quite simply it was good quality, honest, natural ingredients.  As well as milk and cream, ice cream is made from milk powder.  Whereas many other producers would cut costs, Thayer’s always used full cream milk powder in their formulation.  So here’s a scoop.  Here’s the recipe for Thayer’s ice cream which John can still remember to this day:

280 milk, 30 dairy cream, 125 butter, 125 full cream milk powder, 250 sugar, 25 glucose, 12 eggs, a bit of emulsifier and stabiliser thrown in but never any preservative.  I know what you are going to say.  There are no units quoted.  Well the units were kilograms but I thought if I put that in someone would try and copy it and end up eating ice cream for three years.  And no vanilla flavouring in there either, this was pure dairy ice cream.

1965 Cyril Thayer (MD of Thayer's Ice Cream) stirs the ice cream

Cyril Thayer mixing his dairy ice cream at 13 Wellfield Road

There were of course the various other flavours, over twenty in all.  Thayer’s strawberry ice cream was infamous.  The business used to use 14 tonnes of strawberries each year.  That’s an awful lot of strawberries.   Then there were the other favourites, chocolate, coffee.  And I’m sure I remember orange, or is my memory playing tricks there.

Wellfield Road, Roath, Cardiff  in 1972

Thayer’s ice cream shop in Wellfield Road in 1972

The very early ice cream making equipment in 13 Wellfield Road made no more than 2 gallons at a time.  More machinery was purchased to make larger quantities but eventually the time came when the company got so successful that other premises were needed.  In 1966 Thayer’s ice cream started to be made at a site in Wentloog Road, Rumney.

David Thayer at the Wentloog ROad factory in 1975

David Thayer at the Wentloog Road factory in 1975

By now Thayer’s were employing over 100 people, supplying their ice-cream throughout a sizable geographical area, mainly to the small traders such as corner shops.  A small fleet of 14 vans was used to supply the distribution network all efficiently choreographed using early Rediffusion computers.   There was even a small factory in North Wales in Llandudno that John used to visit weekly to supervise the ice cream making.

Thayer’s was very much a family business.  John recalls helping out in the Wellfield Road shop from a young age serving people such as Mr A G Meek who ran the shoe shop around the corner in Albany Road.  Over the years John and his brother and sister took an increasing role in the business and eventually took over from their father Cyril. John used his knowledge gained from studying  engineering at university to make the process more efficient whilst maintaining their superior quality.

Bob Davies in Thayers Wellfield ROad in 1988

Bob Davies retired in 1987 from Thayer’s in Wellfielld Road after 27 years service. Bob, originally from Ruthin in North Wales, would often be heard speaking Welsh to customers.

However, all good things must come to an end as they say.  People’s shopping habits were changing and the corner shop outlets fast disappearing.  Margins were shrinking and the sad decision was eventually taken to sell the business together with the name.  It was purchased by Express Foods in the 1980s.  David Thayer, John’s brother,  does still have an ice cream shop in Bath trading under subtly different trading name of David Thayer’s Ice Cream Shop.

Thayers in Bath - photo Michael Haines

David Thayer’s Ice Cream Shop, Bath (photo credit – Michael Haines)

Cyril Thayer, the entrepreneur and perfectionist and man whose name is synonymous with one of Cardiff’s most famous brands, passed away in 2006. He was also a dedicated family man and devoted his later years of his life caring for his late wife Irene, who suffered from Alzheimer’s Disease, as well as raising awareness of the condition.

 

Photos: Cyril Thayer and his wife Irene.  John Thayer

 

For me the name Thayer’s takes me back to my childhood.  For a special treat some weeks my grandfather would be sent down Pen-y-lan Hill to buy a block of Thayer’s ice cream whilst my grandmother was busy making dinner.  It would arrive back, carefully wrapped in newspaper to insulate it.  By the time dinner had been consumed the ice cream was in perfect condition, nicely soft around the sides and full of flavour.  Raspberry ripple was my favourite.  There were no freezers in those days so naturally the whole block had to be consumed in one sitting – such a hardship.

So I’ll leave you to reminisce, trying to recall if you were a tub or a cone person and what was your favourite flavour.

 

Pen-y-lan Road blitz victims

I have a confession to make.  I enjoy researching the names on war memorials.  I enjoy unravelling the facts behind the life …. and death, of the named person, where they lived, their professions  and  their family.  At the same time I find it incredibly sad.   I periodically have to take a break when my eyes get a little watery, when I discover their fate; on the battlefield, being shot down from the air or lost at sea.  As a parent of boys myself I start to imagine what it must have been like for those parents to receive the harrowing news of the loss a son or in some cases two or three.  Then after a minutes reflection, its back to it.  Back to the immersive hobby of being a keyboard detective.

Penylan Road bomb damage

Where the Pen-y-lan Road victims died, 8, 10 and 12 Pen-y-lan Road.

 

My old school Marlborough Road Primary have embarked on a year-long project looking at WWII.  Not an easy topic to tackle though.  To teach children about the history and horrors of war whilst at the same time not in any way glorifying it or sending them home with nightmares.  I admire the way they are going about, travelling that delicate route.  The pictures I’ve seen so far look great.

CBS23 Marlbourough Road board school

The original Marlborough Road Board School opened in 1900, on the corner of Blenheim Road and Marlborough Road, damaged in an air raid and subsequently demolished.

I couldn’t help them personally when they put out a plea for people who had lived through the war to be interviewed by the children.  I’m too young for that category.  All I remember is ‘playing soldiers’ in the playground at playtime and the old air raid shelters used in my time for storing the pungent remains of school dinners.  Were they air raid shelters or just outbuildings?  Who knows.  Memories often play tricks

I thought however  I may be able to assist in looking at a local example of how the neighbourhood was impacted by WWII.  The school itself was bombed and badly damaged necessitating the main building to be demolished.  Fortunately the bombs fell at night and no lives were lost.  The same can’t be said however for the adjoining Agincourt Road.  There lives were lost.  Maybe that is too close to the school to pick as an example, plus I haven’t seen any pictures of that post-bombing damage or for that fact the school itself after the bombs fell.  Instead I have looked at nearby Pen-y-lan Road.

The Pen-y-lan Road bombs don’t always get a mention in articles about the Cardiff blitz.  Yes, the loss of life wasn’t as great as the horrific Hollyman’s Bakery in Grangetown where 32 people died  in January 1941.  But the Pen-y-lan Road bomb did kill eight people, five of them from the same family.

So where in Pen-y-lan Road are we talking about?  The lives were lost in numbers 8, 10 and 12 Pen-y-lan Road which is near where if joins Albany Road, near the Bottle Shop (no.4) and da Mara (no.2).  The bombs fell on 18th May 1943 in what has been described as the Final Blitz on Cardiff.

Widespread destruction was caused during the night raid involving no more than 50 German bombers which lasted only 83 minutes from 2.36am, dropping high explosives and parachute bombs and incendiary bombs.  Over 40 people were killed that night in total with 52 seriously wounded.

Following the railway line from Llanishen Reservoir through Whichurch, Rhiwbina and the Heath to Queen’s Street Station and the Docks.  Cathys Cemetery itself was hit.  Houses were damaged in Pantbach Road, Llwynfedw Gardens and Mynachdy estate.  A direct hit on houses in St Agnes Road killed six people.

The greatest loss of life in Pen-y-lan Road was in number 12.  Here five members of the same family were killed; Elizabeth Wing (aged 82), her daughters Lilian Wing (aged 49) and Olive Margrett (aged 47) and granddaughters Mavis Rees (aged 9) and Patricia Margrett (aged 19).  I first came across this family last year when researching the war memorial plaque in Albany Road Baptist church where Elizabeth and Lilian are remembered.

Register 12 Penylan Road - Copy

Occupants of 12 Pen-y-lan Road in 1939.  The victims of the bombing marked in red.  Patricia Margarett record likely to be the ‘closed’ record.

Elizabeth Wing was born in Leicester.  She married painter and decorator John Wing from Pembrokshire in 1887 and had eight children, three of whom it appears died young.  At the time of the 1911 census the family were living in nearby Moy Road and Elizabeth working as a dressmaker.  John, her husband, had died in 1916 aged 63.

Lilian Wing was a shop assistant in a confectionery shop, presumably downstairs from where they were living and which appears to have been owned by her sister Dora, described in the 1939 register as a confectioner and tobacconist.

Olive Margrett was married to Archibald Margrett, a steam raiser on the Great Western Railway who died in 1953. They had just the one daughter Patricia Margrett.  Archibald later remarried in 1945.

Mavis Rees, then aged 9, was the daughter of Dora and William J Rees who were married in 1925. Mavis also had a brother Colin J Rees aged 12, but I don’t know if he or the father William were in the house at the time it was bombed.   The following extract from the Roath Girl’s school log (presumably Roath Park?).  It seems to indicate Mavis as a pupil at Marlborough Road school.

The Head of Roath Girls’ reports Miss Hughes was unable to remain in school for she was suffering from shock after the early morning Raid, when her home was blitzed. Mavis Rees of 12 Penylan Road [a Marlborough girl and an evacuee] was seriously injured and taken to hospital. Later she died as the result of burns and shock. The pupils of her class sent a wreath and a letter of condolence was sent to the nearest relative, an aunt’.

Albany Road Baptist Church war memorial

Elizabeth Wing and Mavis Rees remembered on the memorial in nearby Albany Road Baptist Church

In number 10 Pen-y-lan Road Ivy Witts lost her life aged 45.  She was wife of Sidney Rowland Witts.  Ivy Dwynwen Morgan was born in 1896 in Cardiff and grew up on Broadway, Roath.  She married Sidney Witts at St Margaret’s church Roath in 1919 and had three children.   In 1939 Sidney is working as an official in the British Legion for ex-servicemen.

Ivy Witts

An early picture of Ivy Witts

Next door in number 8 Pen-y-lan Road husband and wife Edith Maud Davey and William Charles Davey were killed.  William Davey was a hairdresser had been a hairdresser all his life.  In the 1911 census we find him living in Harpur Street aged 17 and employed as a hairdresser.

Ivy Witts register - Copy

The occupants of 8 and 10 Pen-y-lan Road that died in the bombing of 18th May 1943.

Also living at 8 Pen-y-lan Road at the time of the raid was their son, 22 year old Trevor W C Davey, an apprentice electrical engineer.  Two months after the loss of his parents Trevor gets engaged to Sylvia Perkins from Ely.

Trevor Davey engagement 7 Jun 1943

In the book Cardiff – A City at War, Dennis Morgan recounts how another family in Pen-y-lan Road had a lucky escape:

Just across the road it was once again a Morrison shelter, which was under the stairs and protected with sandbags, that saved Mrs. Webber and her family.  The house had collapsed on them and, “the next thing we knew was that things were cascading down on to the shelter’’.  At first the rescue party saw little hope of finding them alive.  Eventually their shouts were heard and their morale was uplifted when their dog, Kim, scrambled into the shelter with them.  A flask of coffee was handed through a tiny hole but it was more than 6 hours before they were rescued.  Like many, who experienced the terror of the blitz and lived to tell the tale, Mrs. Webber commented, “None of us would ever grumble about anything again”.

1 Penylan Road bomb damage

All that remained where 1 Pen-y-lan Road where Mr & Mrs Webber and their dog  survived (photo: Cardiff Libraries)

I must admit I didn’t know what a Morrison shelter was.  It is not something purchased from your local supermarket.  It is a steel cage with a flat surface on top that often used to double up as a table.

Morrison shelter

Morrison shelter (photo Wiki)

The Webbers lived at 1 Pen-y-lan Road, almost opposite where the lives were lost at No’s 8, 10 & 12.  There is one blitz picture sometimes described as Albany Road and sometimes as Pen-y-lan Road that looks like it could well be No 1 Pen-y-lan Road, given the angle of the houses behind which would be Albany Road.  Amazing to think that anyone survived that damage.

The Webber’s had two children, William Webber and Anne Webber who would have been 11 and 9 at the time of the raid.  There is no mention of whether they too were also sheltering under the stairs at the time.

Looking at Pen-y-lan Road today it is easy to see where the houses involved in the raid were.  All have since been demolished and replaced with new housing, though judging by the architecture I would guess that the sites remained vacant for some time after the war before rebuilding took place, but I admit I am no architect.

Penylan Road today

The post-war houses that have replaced 8, 10 and 12 Pen-y-lan Road

1 Pen-y-lan Road today

The new building built on the site of 1 Pen-y-lan Road that was destroyed in the WWII blitz.

The other source of information available to researchers in addition to the traditional census records and birth, deaths and marriages is the Trade Directories.  These weren’t necessarily  issued every year so there are gaps.  The Cardiff Trade Directories can be viewed in Cathays Library.

 

 

 

The Friends of Cathays Cemetery have issued a booklet listing the casualties of the Cardiff Blitz.  As well as detailing their names and addresses it also lists where the casualties are buried in the cemetery.  Armed with this information I paid a visit to Cathays Cemetery to see if I could find the graves of the Pen-y-lan Road casualties.

plan oof new cemetery at Cathays Cemetery

Plan of the new cemetery at Cathays Cemetery

Finding the plots at Cathays Cemetery, even with a plot number isn’t easy.  Plot maps are available on FOCC website but even then trying to work out on the ground which row and column is which is confusing.  What I found helped a lot was the fact that Commonwealth War Graves are marked on the plot maps with a diamond shape.  Then referring to another list of the Commonwealth war graves at Cathays it is possible to calculate where in relation to those graves is the plot you are looking for.

War graves marked with diamond

A section of a plot map at Cathays Cemetery with Commonwealth War graves marked with a diamond

Unfortunately the plots I found of the people who died in the Pen-y-lan Road bombing, all except one,  had unmarked graves i.e. no headstone present.  The exception was the grave of Elizabeth Wing and her daughter Lilian.  Here there was a headstone but it had become too weathered to read. I don’t suppose the absence of headstones should come as a surprise considering the burials took place in wartime, but a sad discovery nevertheless.

Grave of Elizabeth and Lilian Wing

grave of Elizabeth and Lilian Wing  at Cathays Cemetery

So next time you are in the vicinity of Pen-y-lan Road, spare a thought for those killed by one of the last bombs to fall on Cardiff; Elizabeth the dressmaker, Lilian the shop assistant, Ivy Witts and William the hairdresser and their families, just like the man in the photograph is probably doing.   Then spare another thought for all those killed in WWII and indeed all other victims of war before and since.

Penylan Road bomb damage

Postscript

After publishing this blog I received quite a bit of feedback, including this very moving recollection from Pat Laing who has given me permission to include it here:

Mr and Mrs Rees and their son Colin and daughter Mavis came back from South Africa in 1938 and rented 116 Marlborough Rd. I lived at 120 and being only one year younger than Mavis we quickly became close friends. We went to different schools but took ballet lessons together every Saturday in Charles St and played together in the afternoons and in school holidays.  When the war started Mr Rees joined up and Mrs Rees and Colin and Mavis went to live at 12 Penylan Rd.  I was there playing the piano and doing block designs with Mavis on the evening of May 18th.  She was playing White Christmas as she had just got the sheet music.  I said goodbye at about 7pm and added “See you Saturday at the bus stop”, but of course I never saw her again.  By 1946 her father and mother were running a sweet shop in City Rd.  I met up with Colin about 1948 and we played tennis together for a few years in Roath Park. He went to Bristol University.  He a always bore burn marks on his legs.

The Cardiff High School Headmaster who never was.

I thought I would start to take a look at the names on the Cardiff High WWI memorial plaque.  I’ve made a slow start.  The first name on the memorial is “J L Davies.  Essex Regt (Headmaster 1915)”.  It’s a sad story, as are all that lie behind war memorial names.

John Llewelyn Davies - Headmaster Cardiff High

Major John Llewelyn Davies (Photo credit: IWM)

 

The war memorial plaque was originally displayed at the old Cardiff High School on Newport Road but now sited at Cardiff High School on  Llandennis Road. It was dedicated in its original position on 22nd Nov 1922, relocated to the new Cardiff High School building in 1970 and rededicated on 30th June 2006 after being restored and remounted.

Cardiff High School War Memorial

J L Davies Cardiff High War Memorial

J L Davies was Major John Llewelyn Davies. He was born in the picturesque village of St Ishmael, near Ferryside in Carmarthenshire in 1879.  His father, David Davies, was a schoolmaster.  Sometime in the next ten years David Davies moved to Neath where he became headmaster of what is now called the Alderman Davies school, more famous these days for being where Katherine Jenkins started he education.

St Ishmael, Carmarthenshire

St Ishmael, Carmarthenshire, birthplace of John Llewelyn Davies

John Llewelyn Davies attended his father’s school in Neath as did probably his five siblings.  After school he then went on to study at Aberystwyth University and then Emmanuel College, Cambridge.  He graduated with First Class honours in Natural Science and went on to gain an M.A.

Emmanual College Cambridge

Emmanuel College, Cambridge (Photo credit – Wiki)

 

On leaving Cambridge, John went as lecturer to Carmarthen Training College (Trinity College) for a short period, and subsequently became science master at the Perse School, Cambridge.  As a  schoolmaster,  Major  Davies  was  thorough  and  successful, enjoying great popularity among his boys and colleagues.  His pupils gained  many open  scholarships at universities.

Carmarthen Training College

Trinity College Carmarthen

As well as having a passion for science, John Llewelyn Davies was dedicated to the military.  Whilst teaching in Cambridge he spent seven years as a Lieutenant in the Officers Training Corps.  When the war broke out he gave up his post at Perse School and joined the 11th Essex Regiment as Captain of A Company.

Perse School, Cambridge

Perse School, Cambridge in the late 1800s

In April 1915 he was promoted to the rank of Major.  In May he was appointed as Headmaster of Cardiff High School.  It was agreed that he would take up his post when the war was over.  On 17th August 1915 he was married to Isabel Christina Jessie Fraser B.A. in Wrexham.  Christina, a teacher,  worked at the Training College in Bingley, Yorkshire.  On 30 August 1915, just thirteen days after he was married,  John Llewelyn Davies and his battalion landed at Boulogne, and proceeded to positions at Loos.

On 25th September 1915, Major John Llewelyn Davies is killed on the first day of the battle of Loos in France, one of the bloodiest battles of WWI where 60,000 British soldiers perished.  He was aged 35. He has no known burial site.

Battle of Loos

photograph (Q 28986) Battle of Loos, 25th September, 1915. Ruined buildings in a street in Loos, 30th September, 1915. The famous Tower Bridge can be seen. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205092033

One of his fellow officers wrote “He was very much a fine soldier and all had such implicit confidence in him.  He was so capable and absolutely to be relied upon. The regiment feels very much his loss for he was one of the ablest officers”.

John Llewelyn Davies is remembered on a number of War Memorials.  As well as the Cardiff High School memorial his name also appears on memorials at Aberystwyth University, Trinity College Carmarthen and Perse School Cambridge as well as the Loos Memorial at Dud Corner Cemetery, France.

Aberystwyth University

Aberystwyth University – one of the places Major J L Davies is remembered

His wife of just one month, Christina, continued her teaching career and never did remarry, and lived into her eighties.  She passed away in Chirk, Denbighshire in 1964.

The probate of Major John Llewelyn Davies details that the executor was his bother  Richard Jones Davies.    The probate also states that  he died as Wesel in Germany.

John Llewellyn Davies probate announcment 2nd May 2016 Cambrian Leader

John Llewellyn Davies probate announcement 2nd May 2016 Cambrian Leader

One newspaper report states that the brother, Richard Jones Davies lived in Llanishen, so maybe there was a connection to Cardiff after all.  I tried to find Richard Davies in Cardiff in the 1911 Census but failed.  It turns out he was at the time in hospital in Pinewood, Wokingham, Berkshire.  Pinewood hospital was a place for those recovering from tuberculosis, a not uncommon disease at the time.

So Major John Llewelyn Davies never got to take up his post as Headmaster of Cardiff High School. Judging by his prior achievements I’m sure he would have been very successful in that role.  A sad loss to his family and to Cardiff High School.

Trinity College War Memorial

Loos War Memorial, France (Photo Credit: Gwyn Prescott)

Subsequent Information

After publishing this blog post Gwyn Prescott (rugby and military historian) was kind enough to share with me his bio on Major J L Davies.  It contained some interesting additional information:

  • The Red Cross reported that Major John Llewelyn Davies had died of wounds in German hands at Wesel, Germany. A fellow officer wrote: “He was such a fine soldier, and [all his men] had such implicit confidence in him. He was so capable and absolutely to be relied on. The regiment feels very much his loss, for he was one of the ablest officers.”  His official date of death is given as 25th September 1915, the day on which the Battle of Loos opened. However, it appears that he may have been mortally wounded on the 26th and, as he died in Germany as a prisoner of war, his death must have occurred later. He was 36. His grave was subsequently lost so he is commemorated on the Loos Memorial to the Missing, Dud Corner, France. He is also commemorated on war memorials in Aberystwyth University; Emmanuel College Cambridge; Perse School Cambridge; and the Royal Society of Chemistry, Burlington House, London.

 

RSC War Memorial Burlington HOuse

Royal Society of Chemistry memorial at Burlington House, London

Gwyn Prescott also made me aware that J L Davies was a Chemist.  When I had read that he graduated with degrees in natural science I had assumed he was a biologist or alike, forgetting that Cambridge University natural science degrees cover a breadth of scientific topics.  Being a chemist myself I realised when I read his name is remembered on the memorial at Royal Society of Chemistry offices in Burlington House that I would have walked past his name on a number of occasions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Extra bits

I’m a great believer in not only sharing the findings from research but also the methods of how to go about conducting that research.  I’m by no means an expert and there are others far more expert than me out there in Cardiff.

Researching names on war memorials isn’t always straightforward.  In Wales there are a lot of common surnames making things tricky.  On war memorials it is often only the initials and surname quoted.  And beware, sometimes errors are made even in spelling a name etc.

At least in the case of the Cardiff High war memorial plaque the regiment names are quoted which can help.  In the case therefore of ‘J L Davies.  Essex Regt’, the first thing I did was to see if he was listed on the Commonwealth War Graves.  There were a number of matches J L Davies’s but only one in WWI in the Essex Regiment and he was Major John Llewelyn Davies.  I’m still not convinced however at this stage that I have the right person.

I then spent quite a long time looking for a John Llewelyn Davies in Cardiff on the census records.  A census is carried out once ever ten years in England and Wales but the information kept secret for a hundred years.  The last census therefore available for us to study is the 1911 census. A sort of census was carried out in September 1939 but detailing a lot less information but is also available and called the 1939 Register.  Let me clarify by what I mean when I say ‘available’.  Census records are most easily searched and accessed using the two main family history websites Ancestry and Find my Past.  Unfortunately, both these are subscription websites.  Don’t get despondent, there’s good news.  Both can be accessed free of charge in Cardiff libraries.

John Llewelyn Davies

So I search for John Llewelyn Davies in Cardiff in the census information and find nothing.  This is where I made a mistake.  I should have probably just done and internet search for ‘John Llewelyn Davies’ and ‘Cardiff High School’ where I would probably have discovered that others had carried out similar research.  Instead I just kept looking for a John Llewelyn Davies on census records but without a date of birth things were proving tricky.  Eventually I found one born in Ferryside and had a father who was a schoolmaster. Then I found him in the 1911 census as a schoolmaster in Cambridge which would explain him being a member of the Essex Regiment.  Things were beginning to fit together.  A couple more bits were obtained from Wales Newspapers Online and then back to some more general searching using Google (other internet search engines are available!).

John Llewelyn Davies obit

Mid Glam Herald and Neath Gazette Dec 4th 1915 Obit

I won’t bore you with every avenue I took during my search but I did enjoy doing it.  If you are interested in starting off or honing your skills I can recommend the Glamorgan Family History Society.  They periodically run courses for beginners and have a session on the first Saturday of the month at Cardiff Central Library for more experienced researchers who may have hit a brick wall in their particular project.  A number of Cardiff libraries also run sessions for beginners such as Cathays and Rhydypennau and maybe some others.

My final recommendation is a train trip to Ferryside and St Ishmael, the birthplace of Major John Llewelyn Davies.  I went there earlier this year and the views across the estuary to Llansteffan and Laugharne were something else.  Don’t forget to tell the train conductor you want to get off however as Ferryside is a request stop.  More about that trip on my own blog Cardiff Capers.

 

 

The Secrets of a Cardiff House slowly revealed.

A few weeks ago I spotted a postcard of Cardiff for sale on eBay.  It wasn’t your traditional postcard with a picture of Cardiff Castle, the City Hall or Roath Park lake.  This was a picture of a house, a seemingly ordinary house with nobody posing in front of it. The postmark was 1908.

Cardiff postcard

Mystery Cardiff postcard

I tried to think about where in Cardiff the house could be but quickly realised it looked like so many houses in Cardiff suburbs built in the late Victorian period.  Let’s enlist some help I thought and posted it on the ‘Cardiff Now & Then’ Facebook page – it’s just the sort of thing they may like doing.  Suggestions of where the house could be flooded in.  Some of the streets mentioned are no longer in existence making checking problematic.   With the help of Google Street View however it was possible for me and others in the Facebook group to check most of them and discount many of the suggestions.

Cardiff postcard Miss Grant 26 Bonnington Square Lambeth

My eye was caught by one particular suggestion proposed by David Meek.  David was suggesting it could be 66 Albany Road, opposite his family-owned shoe business, itself of historical significance being one of the oldest businesses in Albany Road.  I examined the image closer.  It certainly looked a good match.  The ornate roof ridge tiles however didn’t match but that didn’t discourage me too much – ridge tiles are often replaced over time.

66 Albany Road, Roath, Cardiff 2019

66 Albany Road today, occupied by CPS Homes

The fact that Albany Road is very much in the heart of our area of interest in Roath Local History Society led me to led me to entering a bid on eBay for the postcard.  In the meantime I set about examining the writing on the back. The card was addressed to Miss Grant of 26 Bonnington Square, South Lambeth, London.  I managed to find the Grant family at that address in the 1911 census.  Miss Grant was probably Edith Alice Grant, a blouse maker.  A bit more research revealed that Edith also had a sister, Bertha Grant, who in 1911 was living with her aunt and uncle in Monmouth.  Bertha is another possibility for the postcard recipient.

Grant family 1911

The Grant family at 26 Bonnington Square, Lambeth in 1911. Miss Edith Grant, a blouse maker, was 27. In 1908, the date of the postcard, she would have been 24.

The final day of the eBay auction arrived and the minutes ticked down.  Lo and behold I won the bidding with my bid of £5.  To be honest I was the only bidder.  A picture of an anonymous house in Cardiff evidently didn’t pique people’s interest.

Whist waiting for the postcard to be delivered I looked again at the photo of the writing on the back of the card.  Working on David Meek’s suggestion that this was 66 Albany Road, I attempted to link it to the family living there in 1911.  In 1911 the house was occupied by the Phillips family headed up by Frederick Phillips, a dental mechanic, whatever one of those is!  Tantalisingly the family originated from London, though the three younger children had all been born in Cardiff.  Eliza, the mother-in-law, had even been born in Lambeth.  Try as I might though I couldn’t find any link between the Grant family and the Phillips family.

66 Albany Road 1911

The Phillips family in 66 Albany Road in 1911.  Was one of these the postcard author?  I had my doubts.

The postcard arrived.  I immediately rushed upstairs and found my magnifying glass.  Bingo!  The house was number 66.  The image posted on eBay hadn’t been good enough quality to see this but now having the original in front of me I could examine it much better and see the number 66 etched on the front door window.

66 Albany Road, Roath, Cardiff, front door

An enlarged view of the front door on the postcard

I still wanted further proof that I was looking at 66 Albany Road and not 66 in another street.  I set about examining the brickwork under the magnifying glass and comparing it to the enlarged Google Streetview image.  I discovered that in a few rows thicker bricks were used than in other rows.  And yes, those layers did match in both the postcard and the modern day.

Stonework comparison

A brick-by-brick comparison of today’s 66 Albany Road with the postcard picture.

That still left an obvious question.  Why make a postcard picture of a seemingly mundane house.  Almost out of desperation I conducted a newspaper search on “66 Albany Road” (Hint – if you haven’t used it yet, Welsh Newspapers Online is a great resource).  I struck gold and all was explained.  In 1908, 66 Albany Road was home to the St Alban’s School of Music run by Abraham N James.

Cymro a'r Celt Llundain 9th Mar 1907

Newspaper cutting from Cymro a’r Celt Llundain 9th Mar 1907

Abraham N James was not shy in his advertising.  He advertised in London newspapers targeted at the Welsh ex-pat community living there. I’m guessing the postcard was just part of his advertising material.  I’m left wondering whether his pupils from far away also boarded in the house.

I started researching the James family.  Abraham Nehemiah James was born in Neath and married Mary Ann Price from Merthyr in 1887 and moved to Aberdare.  They had two daughters, Vida Annie Patti James (b.1889) and Florence Novello James (b.1891) both born in Aberdare.  The name Patti seems to be a nod to Dame Adelina Patti, one of the world’s great opera singers of the time who made her home in Craig y Nos in the Swansea valley.  Florence’s middle name Novello was a nod not to Ivor Novello but his grandmother Clara Novello, an acclaimed soprano singer.

Patti and Novello

Dame Adelina Patti and Clara Novello (photos: Wiki), who the James girls were named after.

 

So let’s have a look at the message on the postcard again.  The handwriting isn’t easy to read but my best guess is:

Dear Miss Grant,

So sorry to hear that you have been laid up.  Dadda and Mamma are away now & Auntie is here with us.  V and I are busy in Coll now.  I will write again when Dadda and Mamma come home. Hoping your better. With love be (?).

Frustratingly there aren’t many clues there.  The V could be one of the daughters Vida.  Of course the writer of the postcard may have nothing to do with the James family.  The writer could be a pupil at the St Alban’s School of Music.  I even thought that Miss Grant could have been a former music teacher of the postcard writer.  Lots of possibilities there.

Plaques on 66 Albany Road

The house in the postcard has two plaques, frustratingly too unclear to read.

So what happened to the Abraham James and family?  In 1911 they had moved from 66 Albany Road to Waterloo Road in Penylan.  Abraham died later that year aged 62 leaving just £72 in his will suggesting that his music school may not have been a great money spinner.

Abraham family in 1911 in Waterloo Road, Cardiff

Abraham James and family living in Waterloo Road, Penylan, Cardiff in 1911

In 1939, Vida James the daughter, is living at Roath Court Road and described as incapacitated but lives until 1969 when she was living in Langland on the Gower peninsular.   Florence James, possibly the postcard writer, married Albert Lukey in 1915 and lived in Winchester Avenue, Penylan, Cardiff.  She unfortunately dies ten years later in 1925 aged just 35.  Albert Lukey remarries in 1938 and dies in 1960 in Winchester Avenue.  The world can seem quite a small place still sometimes.  My grandparents lived in Winchester Avenue and my mother was born there.  They would have no doubt have known Albert Lukey and his second wife Dorothy.

So finally, lets return to the picture postcard.  This is probably one of the best pictures that exists of an Albany Road house before it was converted into a shop and therefore of historical significance itself.  66 Albany Road has had many occupants over time.  From 1937-1958 it was Glynne Jones a ladies hairdressers.  In the 1980s it was the jewellers Gold, Gold, Gold.  Nowadays it is occupied by CPS Estate and Letting agents.  The stonework looks lot cleaner than it did in 1908.

66 Albany Road probably in the 1980s

66 Albany Road, far left, occupied by Gold, Gold, Gold, in the 1980s (Photo credit: Alec Kier, Roath Local History Society)

I wonder if you listen very very carefully when passing 66 Albany Road whether you can still hear the voices of budding operatic stars being put through their paces by Abraham Nehemiah James?



Appendix:

Too many bits and pieces were collected in researching Abraham James to include in the body of the article so I offer them here if you still have the staying power to read them.

John Thomas harpist Pencerdd Gwalia

The patron to Abraham James’s St Alban’s School of Music is advertised as being the Royal harpist John Thomas (Pencedd Gwalia)

 

Jan 3rd 1879

An early advertisement from Abraham James in 1879

Aberdare Times 1896

Aberdare Times 1896 – before the James family moved to Cardiff

 

Patent application

A patent application for educational dominoes filed by Abraham James in 1895

Aberdare Leader 23rd Dec 1905

Aberdare Leader, 23rd Dec 1905

Tarian Y Gweithiwr 5th Sep 1907

Tarian Y Gweithiwr 5th Sep 1907

Aberdare Leader 26th Dec 1908

Aberdare Leader 26th Dec 1908

Maurice Turnbull – Wales’ most complete all-round sportsman

Maurice Turnbull

Maurice_Turnbull – Wikipedia

The 5th of August will see the 75th anniversary of the death of Major Maurice Turnbull of the Welsh Guards in Normandy.  He was 38 years old and in the words of the eminent Cricket historian, author and friend of our society Andrew Hignell “remains the most complete all round sportsman Wales has ever produced”.  The evidence is compelling.

He is the only sportsman to play Test cricket for England and rugby union for Wales.  He represented Wales at hockey and squash and was Welsh Champion in the later. He played cricket for Glamorgan between 1924-39 and was the Captain and Secretary in a tumultuous decade for the club.  He was a Test Selector and captained Cambridge University.

He played hockey and rugby for Cambridge University.  His club rugby was primarily with Cardiff but he also appeared for St Peters and London Welsh.  He represented Glamorgan and Somerset at the oval ball game.

Penylan Road, Cardiff - home of Maurice Turnbull

Home of Maurice Turnbull at 110 Penylan Road, Cardiff

Maurice was born in March 1906 in East Grove, Tredegarville the third son of  Bernard and Marie.  His family moved to Penylan Road before his 1st birthday.  His was a large family with six of the boys eventually playing rugby for Cardiff.  The Turnbulls were a  prominent Cardiff family, leaders in the city’s business, civic, religious  and sporting life.

Maurice’s grandfather Philip and great uncle Lewis moved from Whitby in 1877 to expand their family’s shipping business into the growing port of Cardiff.  They formed “Turnbull Brothers, Steamships and Chartering Agents”.  The company prospered and the Turnbulls assumed leading roles in the city’s commercial and maritime life.  They were members of the Cardiff Chamber of Commerce, The Cardiff Railway Company and Seafarer’s charities.  Philip became chairman of the Cardiff and District Committee of the Shipping Federation in 1895.  Although the company ceased trading in 1930 the wider Turnbull family maintained shipping interests in Cardiff until 1943.  Maurice’s father moved from this sector to Currans Brothers, the iron founders, with Uncle Harold rising to become Managing director.

The Turnbull family provided two Lord Mayor’s of Cardiff.  Uncle Harold was in 1921 the city’s youngest Lord Mayor and was granted the Freedom of the City in 1940. Maurice’s younger brother Gerard held the office in the 1970s.

The family were devout Catholics and the brothers involved  themselves in the religious life of the city.  They were regular churchgoers at St Peters with grandfather Philip assisted in the establishment of the school.  Uncle Harold was honoured by the Pope in the 1920s for organising a Catholic conference in Cardiff and for upholding the Catholic faith in South Wales.

Maurice shared this allegiance. On his first overseas tour to Australasia he bemoaned the long train journeys stopping him attending mass and wrote home praising a couple of “good Catholic girls” who had caught his eye.  At the peak of his cricketing responsibilities in 1932 he left the field at close of play at the Arms Park on Saturday to lead the Archdiocese of Cardiff’s delegation to a Papal Mass in Dublin. This involved a return ferry from Fishguard to Rosslare.  He was back in Cardiff suitable refreshed to take up the reins as Glamorgan skipper on Monday morning.  He was a regular contributor to the “ Welsh Catholic Times” in which  he celebrated the achievements of Catholics in sport, none more so than his friend Jack Petersen the British heavyweight boxing champion.  He utilised a few spare days in the Spring of 1932 to visit the Vatican where he had a brief audience with the Pope.  Indeed the final entry in his wartime diary recorded he had taken Mass and Communion.  Clearly his faith was the guiding light in his life.

Maurice’s father and Uncle Bertie were talented sportsmen. Uncle Bertie played Minor County cricket for Glamorgan and first class  for Gloucestershire.  He was also a Glamorgan committee member for much of Maurice’s career.  Bertie played hockey alongside Maurice’s father Bernard for Wales. The brother’s won an Olympic Bronze medal at the 1908 London games for Wales. Yes Wales not Great Britain. The organisers allowed the four Home Nations to enter teams with random club players from France and Germany making up the numbers. Despite Wales losing to Ireland in their only game they picked up a medal. No doubt Maurice was reminded by his elders of their achievement however bizarrely won!

Maurice led a comfortable childhood life in Penylan Road. The household employed five domestic servants. A typical weekend would comprise of Friday tea and billiards with the priest from St Peters, Saturday afternoons cheering the ‘Blue and Blacks’ with his father and brothers at the Arms Park.  Sunday promenading around the Lake after church. The family would then gather around the piano for a sing along.  It is easy to contrast this idyllic childhood with many of his fellow worshipers down the hill at St Peters. However I do not think it unfair to suggest that Maurice’s later ability to socialise as comfortably in a humble fund raising function as a “black tie” event resulted from these formative years.

Downside School, Bath

Maurice Turnbull, Downside School, Bath – school website

Maurice’s education began briefly at Heathfield House in Richmond Road which had recently accepted boys as day scholars.  It was inevitable that he enrolled at Downside a Catholic public school in Bath in the spring of 1917 as the previous generation of Turnbull males had.  Although accompanied by his elder brothers it must have been a daunting prospect for a boy of just eleven.

Downend School hockey team

Maurice Turnbull playing hockey at Downend School

 

Daunting or not he reveled in school life.  Despite his small stature his leadership skills were quickly recognised.  He captained the colts teams and was a junior prefect.  As he physically matured he made first team debuts in his three sports in 1922.

 

He starred as centre forward in hockey.  He impressed so much as a ‘nippy’ scrum half that brother Lou was forced out the centre.  It was a profitable move as it set him on a path to a Cambridge Blue, Cardiff captaincy and 6 Welsh caps.  He opened the batting and finished second in the averages.  Observers enthused over his straight drives to the boundary, his ability to punish poor deliveries and his fearlessness to short pitch bowling from more mature opponents.  In the  holidays he played for a invitation club formed by Glamorgan to assess the talents of young  Welsh amateurs.

The 1923 season started a against a full strength Somerset team when he made a fluent 60.  He made his maiden century for the school.  Word travelled back over the Severn of a rare talent from Cardiff.  Uncle Bertie who was on the Glamorgan committee no doubt championed his nephews cause.

1924 was his breakthrough season. The season was termed “ Turnbull’s” year in the Wisden Cricket Annual as he averaged 85.  More importantly he made his Glamorgan debut.

Lancashire arrived at Swansea unbeaten in August 1924.  The wicket was spiteful and Maurice entered the fray at 21-4.  He dealt with an all star attack with confidence and top scored in the match with 40.  Glamorgan recorded a rare victory and a Lancastrian commented that “this lad will play for England”.

Maurice returned to Downend where he passed exams to study history at Trinity College Cambridge in October 1925.  He was head boy, chairman of the debating society and president of the literary society in his final year.  He captained the rugby and hockey team as well passing a thousand runs.  He also managed to win a school tennis championship and box for the school.  He earned sporting recognition in the adult world when Somerset rugby selected him.

Maurice would return to Downside for the Easter retreat for the rest of his peacetime life. He was the “Muscular Christian” beloved of public schools.

Maurice quickly immersed himself in university life especially the Welsh and Catholic societies.  He was a disciplined scholar but his ambitions were focused upon winning Blues in his chosen sports.  He was to suffer as much heartache as glory in this pursuit.

His path to a Rugby Blue was blocked by the established Wilf Sobey, a future England and British Lions scrum half.  He was unable to join brother Lou in the successful Cambridge team of 1925.  Ironically in his third year Sobey withdrew on the eve of the Twickenham fixture but Maurice was indisposed recovering from knee surgery.  Maurice decided to prolong his university career for a further year to study the poetry of the Great War.  Although his Uncle Illtyd falling at Gallipoli would have been influential in this decision it afforded him the final chance to win a Blue especially as Sobey had left university.  Again fate intervened with neck and shoulder problems ruling him out.

His hockey was also doomed to disappointment.  He was competing for selection against players focusing solely on hockey.  His rugby commitments and injuries meant he was unable to sustain a challenge for the big game.

The strength of Cambridge sports is indicated by the honours won by Maurice whilst at Cambridge despite his Varsity “Blues”.  He continued to play rugby for Somerset and his adopted rugby county achieved a rare victory at Kingsholm, Gloucester. He also won three Welsh hockey caps in 1929.

He scored the winning goal on debut against Scotland. He appeared on losing teams against Ireland and England.

In contrast to his winter vexations his university cricket was fulfilled.  His first appearance against Middlesex ended in an inauspicious abandonment courtesy of the General Strike.  Nonetheless he sealed his  Blues selection with a half century against the MCC at Lords and made 78 for the Light Blues in a victory in the big match.  He missed the 1927 season due to his knee problems.  He was back the following season but failed with the bat and Oxford escaped with a unlikely draw.

Maurice Turnbull - in the Cambridge cricket team

Maurice Turnbull (centre) in the Cambridge University Cricket team.

The 1929 season was Maurice’s last as a student and he made it a memorable one.  He was elected captain and made over a 1000 runs averaging 50.  His 167 not out  against Yorkshire was “ quite brilliant”.  He leadership in the Cambridge victory in the Lords showpiece showed his “inner steel”.  He had endured severe criticism for his selection of JT Morgan as his wicketkeeper/batsman despite his poor form.  Trevil was from Cyncoed, a family member of the town department store and a long standing pal of Maurice.  They spent many hours together at the racetrack and restaurants.  There were dark mutterings of Maurice’s lack of objectivity but the Cyncoed boy’s 149 in another Cambridge triumph ended these.

With his student days behind him Maurice intended to finish the cricket season with Glamorgan and take a job in the City.  However two opportunities arose which shaped the rest of his peacetime life. Uncle Bertie feared that he would be lost to the county and alerted the committee.  Glamorgan had fielded 6 different captains in 1929 and needed stability.  Maurice’s leadership at Cambridge made him the obvious candidate.  They needed little persuasion in offering nor he in accepting the job. Secondly he was invited to tour Australasia with the MCC, i.e. England, in the northern winter of 1929/30 and to be the first Glamorgan player to win a Test cap.

Maurice Turnbull cigarette card

Maurice left Tilbury on SS Orford on the 28 September 1929.  The Australian leg of the tour consisted of five matches against the state sides.  Maurice struggled initially with the pace and bounce of the wickets but in the last game against New South Wales in Sydney he made the round hundred.  He  was honoured to be caught and bowled by Don Bradman.

Maurice feelings toward Australia were mixed.  He enjoyed the wine and the racetracks and moved in elevated company.  He did not appreciate the attitudes of some locals towards ‘Pommies’.  He thought money came too easy to them.  No doubt others would think differently as Australia suffered record unemployment in the worldwide depression.

New Zealand was more to his liking.  He described the beautiful scenery, friendliness and hospitality of the people.  He attended Mass at the Catholic cathedral in Christchurch stating it was the first time he had missed the Christmas service at St Peters.

Maurice made his debut in the first Test in Christchurch.  It was a low key England win in which he sacrificed his wicket going for quick runs at no 8.  Lumbago kept him out of the second test and he could not get his place back. He complained about poor umpiring affecting his chances.  Certainly there is anecdotal evidence to support this.  Some umpires were more interested in lighting their cigars than watching the game and one umpire asked a visiting batsman how many balls in an over!  Nonetheless it was a reluctant Maurice who left the country on the Rangitane to return home via the Pacific, Panama Canal and the Atlantic. They docked in Southampton on the 3rd April after six months away.

Cricket and Rugby pavillion at Cardiff Arms Park

The joint rugby/cricket pavilion at Cardiff Arms Park would have been a familiar sight to Turnbull till it was demolished in around 1934.

Maurice form with Glamorgan earned him selection for the MCC tour to South Africa in 1930/31.  En route he heard the sad news that his father had died suddenly.  He was unable to return back to Cardiff in time for the funeral and took comfort from the support of team members.  He showed his mettle by appearing in all five tests of the series.

He achieved his highest test score of 61 in the First test.  England were set 240 to win.  He shared a stand of 101 with Walter Hammond which was winning the game. He was punishing the spinners in particular when he was bowled down the legside.  He ‘walked’ despite a suspicion the wicket keeper rather than ball had done the damage.  England lost the Test and the series in this game.  He failed to make much of an impact  in later tests and that was his touring days with England over.

He made four home appearances for England against the West Indies in 1933 and India in 1936.  He finished his international career unbeaten on 37 at Lords.  He had come close to captaining in England in 1934.  He had led the Rest in the Test Trial and when the appointed Wyatt withdrew on the eve of the match, Cyril Walters was asked to lead in England not Maurice.  Cyril ironically being a former Glamorgan youngster from Neath.

 

Maurice Turnbull GCCC

Nonetheless despite his Test honours his cricketing legacy resides with Glamorgan as a player and as a leader both on and off the field.

The bare statistics of his batting contribution are over 14000 runs with 22 centuries in 504 innings.  JC Clay his great friend argued that Maurice made runs when they mattered and the game was in the balance.  Easy runs were too mundane for him. He always looked to attack with a full range of strokes.  He would delight spectators with a combination of ‘impudence and unorthodoxy’.

The evidence confirms the argument  that he made ‘hard runs’.  His highest score of 233 against Worcester at Swansea in June 1937 occurred when the openers had departed with the score in single figures.  He hooked and cut in masterfully to set up the victory.  At the same venue in 1932 Glamorgan had collapsed to 36-3 on a turning wicket chasing 310 against Gloucester.  He attacked the legendary spin duo of Goddard and Parker and departed on 119 with a victory few  team mates believed possible assured.  Nonetheless his signature innings was his 205 against Nottinghamshire at the Arms Park in August 1932.  He made an eloquent statement with his bat to the most controversial issue in cricket in the 1930s – Bodyline.

Visiting  bowlers Larwood and Voce had been selected for the winter’s Ashes tour.  The pair spoke of their intention to employ the tactic devised by the tour captain Douglas Jardine in the remaining fixtures of the season.  Turnbull shared a partnership with county stalwart Dai Davies of 220.  Maurice was the dominant partner and defiantly withstood body blows to fiercely hook and pull the ball to the legside boundary.  A youthful John Arlott was a spectator and later wrote “He punished those two bowlers as I believe no other batsman ever did”.  Maurice received a standing ovation at the close of play, undefeated on 160.  It was then the real fun began!

Maurice entertained the visiting captain to dinner at The Grand Hotel in Westgate Street.  Meanwhile the chastened Nottingham bowlers accompanied by the press drowned their sorrows in the town pubs.  They resolved to liven up the wicket as the beer flowed.  After closing time they climbed over the wall to the ground and watered the wicket in a inimitable manner.  The groundsman challenged them and was rough handled.  He managed to get a message to Maurice in the Grand as he was settling the bill.  Maurice sensing an embarrassing story strolled over to the Western Mail and stopped the story as the next day’s paper was about to run.  His renowned charm achieved the same outcome with Fleet Street in the morning.  Fortunately no ‘selfies’ were taken!  With the crisis averted Maurice was eventually dismissed for a double century.  As the game meandered to a draw he pointedly instructed his quick bowlers to give some Bodyline back. “Hoist by their own petard” as he put it.

Maurice was no fan of Bodyline.  He considered it dangerous, and unnecessary.  The next season he spoke out when Clay’s ribs were broken by Yorkshire’s Bowes another of Jardine’s disciples.  He stated that while Jardine had brought back the Ashes it rankled him he had introduced Bodyline.  These words won him favour in influential circles at Lords.  Nonetheless Maurice’s quick action in diffusing a potential controversy indicated his ‘people skills’ which he would deploy to Glamorgan’s huge benefit as Captain and Secretary.

Glamorgan’s playing record during the 1920s from the inaugural championship season of 1921 was abysmal.  They had won just 26 out of 216 games losing 125. Under Maurice’s captaincy in the 1930s indicated steady progress.  In 264 games they won 45 and perhaps as importantly lost just 86.

Maurice Turnbull captaining Glamorgan wearing his MCC sweater

Maurice Turnbull, sitting fourth from left, wearing his MCC sweater as he captains Glamorgan.

There is a catalogue of examples to illustrate the chaos surrounding the county in the 1920s.  Shortage of cash underpinned most of these.  Amateurs sometimes of inferior ability were called up.  The food was often provided by their wives and mothers.  They were so short of players for the final game of 1922 that they drafted in 4 players for their debuts. These included Rhys Gabe-Jones who at 15 years 9 months was the county’s youngest player in his only game.  A decade later he was a Cardiff outside partner for Maurice. Critics described Glamorgan as a ragbag of a team.

Maurice inherited this when he returned from touring with the MCC in the spring of 1930.  The Western Mail’s ‘Nomad’ argued it was vital the new captain won the respect of the professionals. This would be much harder than leading his Cambridge side of broadly similar age and social background.  The comments of two contrasting professionals verifies that he earned this respect.

Jack Mercer led the bowling attack from the mid-1920s until 1939.  He was a deep thinker on and off the field and a talented linguist who spent time at Bletchley Park during the Second World War.  He praised his new captain’s willingness to seek his and his fellow professionals ideas.  Frank Ryan was a talented left arm spinner with a drink habit.  He would blow his cash especially on away games.  Maurice would hold back part of his wages and give him the money as the train pulled into Cardiff often with a bonus from his captain’s pocket.  Ryan rewarded him with127 wickets in 1930, double his return the previous season.  Ryan wrote a touching letter to the Western Mail in 1944 praising Maurice’s “tolerance and restraint, intuition……and a honour and a pleasure to play under him”.  Clay considered that the professionals “thought the world of him” especially his bravery in fielding at short leg.  Not usual for the amateur captain.

Maurice also understood that to ensure a ‘sustainable’ future Glamorgan needed to produce its own first class players that supporters could identity with thereby maximising its Welsh identity.  To this end he negotiated with local Carmarthenshire dignitaries to award a Championship fixture to Llanelli in 1933 and assisted with the merging of Monmouthshire then a minor county with Glamorgan in 1935.  This paid dividends in widening the playing  pool and support.

The captain quietly encouraged these new young players.  He never shouted and assured them they were doing well even if the scoreboard suggested otherwise.  He got the most out of what was then a team of modest ability.  It is pertinent that of the squad that won the 1948 championship, seven were Welshmen who had played under Turnbull, five of whom had made their debuts.

Maurice did have his critics.  He was described as a “martinent“ towards his professionals ordering them to wait at the amateurs changing rooms before the start of play.  Phil Clift, a future coach, spoke of his interview as an aspiring professional that now appears more akin to a headmaster talking to a pupil than to a young man. Undeniable the responsibility of office had eroded his earlier carefree spirit.  Maurice’s ire was not borne solely by the paid employees.  Earnie Harris a young amateur from St Fagans was admonished for playing cards in 2nd class with the professionals rather than sitting in 1st class with his social equals.  However the world is a different place ninety years later.  Socal distinctions were more sharply defined.  Cricket did not have a professional captain at either county or England level until the 1950s. The division between amateurs and paid remained until 1962. Maurice was a man of his time reflecting its values.

Glamorgan steady progress was confirmed in the 1937 season. They finished seventh, their best position in the Championship and completed the double over the New Zealanders. This advance was despite financial uncertainty that threatened the county’s existence.

Glamorgan joined the Championship carrying a financial deficit.  This increased during the 1920s.  The county were caught in a vicious spiral where they could not afford to field sufficient professionals and filled the side with club cricketers.  The side suffered poor results so the gate receipts dwindled.

Uncle Bertie, the club chairman, made a public statement in July 1932 that the season would be the last as a first class county.  The only way to avoid this drastic measure was a £1500 cash injection during the winter.  A ‘Save Glamorgan Cricket Campaign’ was launched and his nephew and Johnny Clay played leading roles.  The media and the great and the good of South Wales such as the Cory’s and the Homfray’s made pledges.  Football and rugby matches were played and grand dinners organised.  Equally as important raffles and dances were held across the towns and villages in which Maurice was to the fore.  A wag suggested he danced as many yards during the winter as runs in his career.  The sum was reached and Glamorgan’s immediate future secured.  The generous response showed much Glamorgan meant to the people and the wisdom of Maurice in championing its Welsh identity

The crisis produced a further benefit to the club and Maurice.  The incumbent secretary resigned.  There were objections from Swansea that the appointment of Maurice as secretary would confirm a Cardiff “mafia” but his offer to play a game further game west allayed these.  The job offer also eased Maurice’s money fears as the family shipping interests were suffering in the bleak financial climate.

Glamorgan’s finances remained concerning throughout  the 1930s. The 2nd eleven withdrew from the Minor Counties championship and the professionals pay was cut. Nonetheless the county under Maurice ceased  their ‘cinderella’ tag and became respectable providing three players for the Test team during the decade.  Maurice’s was integral to this rise and was rewarded with his nomination as a Test selector in 1938.

By this time Maurice’s rugby career was over.  After his university days it had been put on hold due to his MCC tours in the winter. For once he profited from the misfortune of others when the first choice Cardiff scrum half was injured and he made his debut against Gloucester in October 1931.  He impressed despite not playing a serious game for three years.  He was in familiar company with fellow Cambridge man Harry Bowcott and brother Lou captaining the side outside him.  He retained his position in the brave defeat 13-5 to the Springboks.  The Welsh selectors noted his sharp accurate ‘dive pass’ to his outside half and he featured in a Welsh trial before his season ended early with a broken wrist.  He had put down his marker.

Maurice Turnbull playing scrum half

Turnbull showing off his prowess at scrum-half

The 1932/33 would be Maurice’s finest rugby season in which he achieved the distinction of a Welsh rugby cap to go alongside his England cricket sweater. He was in the words of Danny Davies Cardiff rugby historian “a crafty and resourceful scrum half”.  The selectors had decided to select a new exciting backline for the opener game of the championship against England which included Wilf  Wooller and Viv Jenkins future Glamorgan cricketers under Maurice.  They considered Turnbull and Bowcott the best options to unleash them. The Welsh fans travelled in hope rather than anticipation considering that  Wales had not won at Twickenham since the ground had opened in 1909.

Wales recorded a famous victory 7-3 with the backline excelling.  Maurice sustained injuries to the jaw and neck from a robust English pack as was unable to eat solids at the post match dinner.  Nonetheless as he slurped his soup he no doubt reflected that despite the pain he was glad to be playing rugby rather than cricket this winter. Across the world Jardine was winning the Ashes for England but threatening the stability of the Empire in The Bodyline series.

Wales-v-England-1933

Turnbull (bottom right) in the first Wales team to defeat England at Twickenham

Maurice’s injuries prevented him playing in the home defeat to Scotland.  He was recalled for the Irish game in Belfast. It did not go well. The Irish pack dominated making Maurice and his backs redundant.  Wales lost 10-5.  That was the end of Maurice’s international career.

The 1933/34 season was Maurice’s last.  He suffered continual wrist injuries and lost form.  The medical advice was blunt.  He would not be able to hold a bat if he suffered any further damage.  Maurice retired from the game.  Although saddened with the abrupt ending it may have come as a relief.  His newspaper column suggested he had become disillusioned with the tribal nature of the game.  He wrote of being the victim of foul play in Llanelli and of being barracked by spectators in Swansea.  He previewed a Cardiff-Newport clash by stating he “would rather go nut gathering”.  Maurice played 62 games for Cardiff and the Turnbull brothers played over 480 for the ‘Blue and Blacks’ between 1923 and 1937.

He flirted with a return to hockey, playing for a Cambridge former student team against Glamorgan at the Harlequins Ground – now of course St Peters rugby headquarters.  He was selected for a Welsh trial but he declined acknowledging that his cricketing responsibilities were now too onerous.

His secondary sporting interest from the mid-1930s was squash rackets.  He was a keen player at school and university.  He had become frustrated with the shortage of courts in Cardiff.  He led a consortium of businessmen and sportsmen that built the Cardiff Squash Rackets club in Pontcanna.  Maurice proved his ability representing Wales and winning a Welsh title in 1938.

Maurice turns the turf as the foundations are laid in 1936 for the Cardiff Squash Club. He is watched by, from left to right Gerald Turnball

Maurice Turnbull cutting the turf at Cardiff Squash Club in 1936

The club became an integral part of the Cardiff scene where local and visiting sportsmen and women mingled.  One of the later was Elizabeth Brooke of Lincolnshire who was visiting to meet a friend.  Maurice was immediately smitten. Elizabeth not so.  She  considered him “the most conceited man she had ever met”. Ouch!  Maurice persisted and she must have softened her attitude as the couple were engaged on the eve of the 1939 season.

Maurice’s bachelor days had not been carefree.  As the senior single man of the family he bore the responsibility for his younger brothers’ education.  He was fortunate that his Glamorgan income was augmented by shrewd investments in the stock market, the sale of his interests in the family shipping business and an insurance business.

1939 was of course not only a momentous year for Maurice.  In August Glamorgan returned home by steamer from Weston after victories against Gloucester and Somerset.  There was no celebrations on board as the newspapers were scanned anxiously for the latest news on the ‘gathering storm’.  War was declared as the side travelled to Leicester for their final game of the season.  Maurice in his last game for the county top scored, as he had in his first appearance 15 years previously, with 156.  Rain ruined any chance of a win  and his serious Glamorgan days ended in the anticlimax of 0 not out in his last knock.

elizabeth Brooks

Elizabeth Brooke

Elizabeth and Maurice were married in Scunthorpe in September 1939.  He joined the Welsh Guards as a 2nd lieutenant in November.  The Welsh Guards were part of the British Expeditionary Force in France.  Maurice was moved to a transit camp near Dover ready to cross the Channel.  However the Germans pushed the BEF back to the ports and evacuation. Maurice was then stationed at Colchester for sea defence and for clearing the damage caused by stray bombs.

 

 

 

 

Turnbull-1350

He returned occasionally to Cardiff to help organise Glamorgan friendly games.  He was the Army representative on the MCC committee and was a member of a working group to improve the post-war game.  He was destined for a role in cricket’s future administration.  He made a ‘duck’ captaining  the Army in his final  Lords appearance at Lords in June 1942.

Sadly he had to return to Cardiff for Uncle Harold and Bertie’s funeral’s.  He helped organise his mother’s at St Peter’s in April 1942.  On a happier note Maurice used his leave to visit his wartime ‘home’ in Yorkshire where he doted on his children Sara and Simon.  Poignantly his third child Georgina was born a couple of before her father’s death and the priorities of war meant they were destined to never meet.

He attended promotion courses one of which allowed him to visit Downside for a last time.  From early 1944 the battalion started specific training for their role in Operation Overlord and they moved to Eastbourne in readiness for the invasion.  Maurice watched the D-Day flotilla assemble from his hotel room.

He crossed the Channel to Normandy on 18 June. The battalion moved inland towards Caen passing scenes of devastation.  Maurice’s company were directed to provide support to the Americans in the Bocage, an area of small fields and narrow lanes.

On the evening of 5 August tanks and foot soldiers of the SS tank division were spotted advancing south of the village of Montchamp.  Unfortunately the anti-tank equipment and the bulk of British troops were situated north of the village and Maurice was isolated and had lost radio communication with HQ.  Maurice believed the best chance of repelling the counter attack was take out the leading tank, stalling the advance in the confined lanes.  He led his men alongside the hedge and was about to order the attack when the Germans troops opened fire and the tank’s gun pushed through the hedge to join them.  Maurice was killed instantly.  Other of the company were either killed or injured and a hasty retreat ordered.

A few days before the tragic events, JH Morgan the Western Mail’s cricket reporter who was a war correspondent, had bumped into Maurice.  He wrote later that he had charted Maurice from a shy handsome boy of 17 making his debut till that final meeting with Maurice.  He was the same alert upright figure dressed in Military uniform as he had in flannels. He finished by stating he had died as he had played courageous, gallant and a great leader.

Maurice Trunbull wartime shot - another image with another officer

Wartime photo of Major Maurice Turnbull (photographer unknown)

The grim telegram was conveyed back to Elizabeth.  She gathered her children around her and sobbed.  Glamorgan were playing a fundraising friendly when the notice was posted and the crowd rose as one for a minute’s silence.  Maurice’s body was laid to rest at the military cemetery in Bayeux.

Maurice Turnbull death telegram

Telegram bringing news of the death of Maurice Turnbull

 

JC Clay wrote in his obituary that Maurice would have welcomed Glamorgan carrying on playing but in 1948 they did more than just that.  They reached the summit and won the championship.  Wisden, in marking this achievement, stated that it was tragic that he did not see their ultimate triumph as he had given Glamorgan a new meaning.  It was apt the final wicket of the championship was taken by his closest pal Johnny Clay.  The side was captained by Wilf Wooller, who had made his debut under Maurice and had shared the Twickenham victory together in 1933.  The standing umpire was Dai Davies his partner in his epic innings against Nottingham at the Arms Park in 1932.

Grave of Major Maurice Turnbull in Bayeux War Cemetery France

Grave of Major Maurice Turnbull in Bayeux War Cemetery, France (photo:Wikipedia –  Antitheistic )

Whilst his unique distinction of playing cricket for England and rugby for Wales is the stuff of pub quizzes, his greatest sporting legacy was his contribution to Glamorgan. Without his energy and wisdom it is doubtful that the county would have survived its early years. There would have been no Sophia Gardens Stadium or Ashes Tests without his intervention.

Maurice Turnbull Cathays Cemetery Plot C 1853

Maurice Turnbull is also remembered on the grave of his parents in Cathays Cemetery, Cardiff, plot C1853 (photo: Ted Richards)

It is right that as the Roath Local History Society we acknowledge the story of this remarkable character from up the hill in Penylan Road.

Turnbull - A Welsh Sporting Hero - Andrew Hignell

 

My apologies for any errors or omissions.  I strongly  recommend Andrew Hignell’s  “Turnbull: A Welsh Sporting Hero” as further reading and I acknowledge the book as the main secondary source for this article.

Graeme Brown – July 2019

Uncovering the history of Wellfield Road

Wellfield Road, Cardiff history

I must admit that Wellfield Road holds a special draw for me.  It’s where as a child I was taken to get my hair cut in Sam’s, where I was occasionally treated to a Thayer’s ice-cream, where I was taken into the china ornament shop under strict instructions to keep my hands by my side and not knock anything over or else I would have to pay for it, where Mr Clarke, the greengrocer, used to give me stamps to put in my stamp collection, and where I was allowed to spend my pocket money in Billy’s or Baker’s.  Ten years later as a teenager I would be spending hours in Ferrari’s bakery making a coffee and choux bun last for hours discussing world affairs or enjoying a late night chicken tikka masala in the Himalaya after an Allbright or two.

Some of Wellfield Road’s past has literally been uncovered this month.  Waterloo Tea are busy preparing their latest outlet at No.41.  It was most recently Ushi’s gift shop.  When the painter took away some of the old shop front and stripped away the paint what should be uncovered but the name H A Tilley, the name of the old shoe shop.  The signs are Waterloo Tea is going to preserve the old H A Tilley name.

Waterloo Tea, Wellfield Road, Cardiff

June 2019 – uncovering the past. Shop being prepared for Waterloo Tea.

 

Tilley Shoe Shop, Wellfield Road, Cardiff

I’ve done a bit of research and found Herbert Arthur Tilley was born on June 29th 1911 in Newport, son of John Tilley, a gardener, and Alice Hannah Tilley (née Underwood).  In 1939 we find Herbert living on Sherbourne Avenue, Cyncoed together with his elder married sister Alice Doreen Lewis (b.1906).  Herbert describes himself as a boot and shoe retailer whilst Alice is a manageress of a shoe shop.  I’m guessing therefore that they may well have run the Wellfield Road shop together.  Alice passes away in 1984 in Cyncoed and Herbert died on May 28th 1993 in Bournemouth.  I can’t find any record of Herbert ever having married.

 

By all accounts Mr Tilley was a very nice man and a capable tennis player playing in a club in Rhiwbina.  He lived for some time on Llanederyn Road in one of those houses that had its own tennis court.

According to the Cardiff Trade Directories, the occupants prior to H A Tilley was a confectioners Brelaz & Williams.  Information on these occupants was somewhat harder to tease out.  Luckily in the past year, being part of our Society’s Research group, I have picked up some very useful tips.  And so with Pat’s help we have found the following:

41 Wellfield Road, Cardiff - History

Maud Brelaz, nee Williams, was born in Cardiff and marries Charles Louis Brelaz in Dundee in 1923.  In 1925  we find she is advertising herself in the Dundee Courier as Madame Brelaz, Revue Actress and Welsh Singer, open to take on pupils for dancing and singing lessons.  By 1928 they have moved to Wellfield Road and opened a confectionery shop. In January that year the Western Daily Press reports they purchase two Princip steam ovens, manufactured just around the corner in Albany Road. In 1930 however Charles dies in Lusanne, Switzerland.  In 1933 Maud sets up a new company, Penylan Confectioners, with her brother Arthur and family.  We may even have found Maud staring in the 1916 silent film Grim Justice, but haven’t been able to prove that was the same Maud Williams as yet.

So how do we know all this.  Well for shopping streets in particular the very useful resource is Trade Directories.  Some of these are now appearing on-line but the easiest way to access them locally is in Cathays Library.  They tend to cover the period up to 1972.  There is another useful resource in recent years called the Goad maps.  They name every shop on a road in a given year.  The earliest I have found for Wellfield Road is 2006, again in Cathays library.

Wellfield Rad, Cardiff plan 2006

Wellfield ROad, Roath, Cardiff 1972

Wellfield Road 1972 Trade Directory

 

We do however have a 30 year gap between the mid-1970s and 2006 where information is harder to find.  This is where we would like your help.  Can you help us list the shops that were there in that period?  Any help much appreciated!  Many thanks.

Our Research group is looking to spend some time concentrating on Wellfield Road history.  It seems to make sense given that our Society meetings are held at St Andrew’s URC church hall.   I have started a web page on the History of Wellfield Road.  Hopefully, with your help, that will grow and begin to capture some more of the history of this fascinating street.

Sir William Crossman

William Crossman – the first Labour Knight 

(22 March 1854 – 23 January 1929)

As its Labour Day allow me to present to you the life William Crossman, probably one of Cardiff’s unsung heroes.  He was the first labour Lord Mayor of the city and the first labour person and trade unionist ever to be knighted in Great Britain.  That’s quite a claim.  I think its true.  It was certainly a headline in the Echo at the time.

William Crossman picture unknown date

William Crossman wasn’t a Cardiff man.  He was one of the thousands of people that came to Cardiff from the West Country in the late 1800s.  As an aside, I’ve often wondered if that’s the reason why the Cardiff accent is so different from the nearby valleys accent.

Crossman was born in 1854 in Tavistock, Devon, son of John Crossman, a ‘captain’ in a copper mine.  He married Mary Ann Moore on 29th Dec 1885 at the Roath parish church, St Margaret’s.  His address at the time is given as Myra Place.  I’ve not been able to find Myra Place and am left wondering if it is in fact a misspelling of Moira Place in Adamsdown.  After their marriage they lived at 31 Harriet Street, Cathays for the rest of their lives and never had children.

31 Harriet Street, Cathays, Cardiff, home of William Crossman

31 Harriet Street, Cathays

William was a mason by training.  He came to Cardiff to work as a foreman mason on the Roath Dock at Cardiff in 1884.  He became a labour leader in 1892, at the time of the great building trade dispute. As a member of the conciliation committee he did much to bring that strike to a satisfactory end.  He was said to have been a reasonable man, standing for his principle, but not spoiling for a fight. His sincerity and simplicity is said to have won him the respect and confidence of his opponents. For many years his life was devoted to labour representation, what we would now call trade unionism.

His conciliation skills must have been widely admired.  In the early 1900s be became Chief Magistrate and was appointed as Lord Mayor of Cardiff in 1906.   He was knighted whilst still in office by Edward VII on his visit to Cardiff on 13 July 1907, when the King came to open the Queen Alexandra Dock.  A crowd of some 50,000 people is said to have gathered in front of the City Hall to witness the ceremony.  The papers reported that he was the first labourer to have been knighted and probably also the first trade union leader.  At the civic ceremony that followed the ceremony, King Edward VII is said to have commented to William, “I quite understand my man” upon seeing him refuse an alcoholic drink. Sir William was a devoted church member and one of the two Sunday school superintendents in the Bible Christian Methodist Church in Miskin Street, Cathays, Cardiff.

Knighting of William Crossman by King Edward VII in Cardiff by William Hatherell

Painting of Knighting of William Crossman by King Edward VII in Cardiff by William Hatherell

In January 1910 Crossman was appointed President of the new Labour Exchange in Bridge Street, Cardiff  by Winston Churchill, then President of the Board of Trade. His appointment appears to have been welcomed by politicians of all shades in Cardiff at the time.

Sir William Smith Crossman died on January 23rd 1929 aged 74 years.  He is buried at Cathays cemetery.

William Crossman Gravestone at Cathays Cemetery

Inscription: In loving memory of WILLIAM SMITH CROSSMAN Kt. JP. Lord Mayor of this city 1906-7, who died January 23rd 1929 age 74 years. “Until the day break and the shadows flee away” Also of Dame Mary Ann CROSSMAN the dearly beloved wife of the above who died April 29th 1935 aged 91 years. “In peace they lived together and peacefully they passed away”

The best insight into William Crossman’s life I’ve been able to find is, from of all places, the New Zealand Herald.  From the first part of the interview Crossman comes over as a very humble man.  Just as the interview is about to conclude he gets the opportunity to express his religious views and importance of abstinence. I wonder if the garden in Harriet Street still looks good!

 

New Zealand Herald.  September 7th 1907

FROM STONEMASON TO KNIGHT.

STORY OF SIR W. CROSSMAN’S LIFE.

Working, rather than talking, is the strong point in the character of Sir William Crossman, Lord Mayor of Cardiff, the Labour representative whom the King has just honoured with a knighthood.

There is certainly squareness and massiveness about Sir William’s appearance suggestive of speech—few words and weighty —and himself or his doings form above all others the subject he is most reluctant to speak about.

After some persuasion, however, he consented to give some account of his life and bringing up, telling the tale of quiet, steady work in the simplest possible language.

“I was born in Devonshire,” said Sir William Crossman, though, perhaps, I can hardly be called a Devonshire man, as I was ‘raised’ in Cornwall.  I was born at Tavistock in 1864.  My father was then the captain of the copper ore mine.

“I have not had a great deal of schooling.  All the education I ever had was at the Tavistock national school.  I remained there till I was fourteen, and then I set out to earn my own living.

“That was what took me to Cornwall.  I became apprenticed as a stonemason in the Gunnisiake Granite Quarries and served the usual term of five years.  Then I worked for a while as journeyman at the same quarries.

“After that I went to work at Bristol, and since then I have been engaged in my trade there and elsewhere, but generally working on public works.’’

Nearly half Sir William’s life has, however, been spent in the capital of South Wales; and it is his splendid record of public work in that city which has led to the dramatic contrasts in his life; so that the man who worked as a foreman mason on the building of one dock represented his city in the reception of the Sovereign at the opening of the next.

“It was more twenty years ago that I came to Cardiff,” said Sir William; “indeed, it was 1884.  The new Roath Dock was then being built, and I came as foreman-mason under the contractors, and held the position till the contract was completed.”

“‘Afterwards I was engaged on a good many other important building works in the town—the castle wall in the North Road, and I was foreman mason again at the erection of some big warehouses at the West Dock.”

LEADER OF LAROUR.

What first brought Sir William Crossman into prominence in the public life of Cardiff was a dispute in the building trade between employers and employed.

This led to a strike of a somewhat obstinate character which lasted several months, and was accompanied, as is usual by a considerable amount of embittered controversy.  Into this controversy Sir William Crossman entered as a cordial advocate of the claims of Labour, but at the same time the position he took up was so reasonable, and the manner in which he defended, it was so tactful, that he was successful in gaining not only the support of his fellow workmen but the respect and confidence of the employers.

William Crossman

On this aspect of the subject, Sir William Crossman had, however, nothing to say, only remarking that it was in the year marked by this dispute -1902- that was first elected a member of the Cardiff Corporation.

“I was put up for Cathays Ward,”  he said, ‘by Cardiff Labour Progressive League and I was returned for the ward by a good majority, “I have kept my seat ever since. though I have had to fight for it twice.  I have always contested the ward as Labour and Liberal.

“It is the same district – the Cathays Ward- that I represent on the Board of Guardians.  I have been on the board for some eight or nine years.  “But I not know,”’ said Sir William, smiling. “that if I were to enumerate all the different positions I do hold or have held it would be interesting.”

THE SIMPLE LIFE.

Though, since his public duties have absorbed so much of his time, Sir William Crossman has ceased to wield the hammer and chisel himself, he still leads the simple life of a working man.  His little home in the Cathays Ward of Cardiff, over which Lady Crossman presides with pleasant and kindly hospitality, is only rented, at £20 a year.

The garden is but a little oblong patch usually attached to such villas, but the most is made of it.  It is overflowing with flowers, and the little conservatory, which opens out of Sir William’s tiny study, displays a wonderful variety of blossom and colour.  Gardening is Sir William’s hobby in his leisure moments, which, however, especially since his accession to the Mayoral duties, are not very numerous.

Lord Mayor William Crossman portrait by Parker Hagarty

Lord Mayor William Crossman portrait by Parker Hagarty

“I have always found great pleasure in gardening,” he said. ‘‘After the busy life of the day I find working among my flowers restful.  I think, especially in towns, you can tell a great deal about the character of people by the way they keep their gardens.  Perhaps you see one a squalid wilderness and the next one ablaze with flowers.

“I do not think I have anything more to say,” said Sir William in conclusion.

“If you ask me to what I think I owe most in my life I would like to say I had the great advantage of being brought up by Christian parents and of knowing the benefit of total abstinence from my youth.  My father was a very strong temperance advocate”.

Miskin Street Bible Christian Chapel

“Then I was fortunate in choosing as a friend and companion when I left my home a man who was steady in habits and a good friend to have. That was when I left Cornwall for Bristol. “It is  in the choice of their friends and companions that I always feel young men should be so careful. I am sure their future often greatly depends on their companions in early life.  I have so often known young men who had good parents, but when they left home they allowed themselves to be led away by careless companions.  It is often simply for want of a little consideration on their own part, they forget the teaching of the old home life and cast it all aside.

Young men by the time they have passed through their apprenticeship, are launching out in their life on their own account, have generally picked up a friend.

The two start out together, and their characters influence each other a good deal.  A good friend then may make a lot of difference in a young man’s life.

“Since I have grown to manhood and taken part for some years now in Sunday-school work, I have always tried my best to instil into young people an idea of their responsibility in future.  I have tried to make them see how important it is for them, when they launch out into life for themselves to carry with them the influence of a good home as the best means to help them to grow up and useful citizens.

“For, of course, if a young man his character and grit, and can resist temptation, it is a great advantage for him when he has finished his apprenticeship  not to stay all the time at the same works, but to travel a bit, to ‘spread about the country’ as we say.  He needs to see other methods; to find out what other firms are doing, and the ways of other districts.

“That is generally how the best men are made, the men who become foremen of large worker. They have generally travelled and seen of variety of work.’

—————————————————————————————————————————–

 

William Crossman being knighted by King Edward 1906

William Crossman being knighted by King Edward 1906

 

Family History

William Crossman had six siblings though three of them died in infancy.  There also appears to have been quite a lot of child mortality in the offspring of the three remaining siblings so the Crossman family history isn’t spread very wide it seems.  There may be some living offspring living in Canada.

Mary Ann Moore, Lady Crossman

Mary Ann Moore, Lady Crossman

William Crossman’s wife, Mary Ann Moore, as from the Isle of Man.  ‘Annie’ as she was known was baptized on 21st March 1844 at St. Barnabas Church, Douglas, Isle of Man . She went into service as a cook working for an upper class family in England where Henry Bingham Mildmay was the man of the house. There she  met her future husband, William Crossman, who was a guest of her employer one evening. After dinner, Crossman asked his host whether he could meet the cook who had prepared such a wonderful meal. And the rest as they say is history.

They didn’t have any children, but Charlotte Moore, a niece, and her two young daughters, Dora and Rita (Marguerite), lived in Cardiff with the Crossmans for a couple of years following the death of Charlotte’s young husband, Mr Bond. Lord Crossman was known to send a regular supply of good quality second hand clothing to his brother-in-law, William Preston Moore, for him to distribute to the needy and destitute in Liverpool.

Mary Ann and her spinster sister Catherine Ellen were very close and they lived their final years together in Cardiff. Ellen had worked as a Ladies Companion to a member of the aristocracy. She was an expert in etiquette and mixed with high society. When her sister, Mary Ann was widowed, Ellen came to Cardiff to look after Mary Ann until she passed away. They are buried together along with William Crossman in the grave in Cathays Cemetery.

Mary Ann came from a maritime family.  Her father Peter Moore (1813-1880) was a sailmaker,  is listed in  Slater’s Directory in 1846 and 1852 as living at 5 James St., Douglas, Isle of Man. He is also listed as being a joint ship owner of the vessels “Dolphin” and “”Laburnum”. Peter is buried in the Old Kirk Braddan Cemetery in Douglas. Mary Ann’s mother was Anne Preston (1816-1857) also from Douglas, Isle of Man.  She had eight children the last of which was born in 1856, just a year before she died.

 

Pg 6 Glamorgan Gazette 19 July 1907

Glamorgan Gazette 19 July 1907 p6

Addendum

This piece of research into the life William Crossman originates from a U3A (University of the Third Age) Family History Group.  We wanted to learn together about tracing someone’s family history and someone suggested choosing someone not connected with any of our families and why not look at the life of a Cardiff Mayor.  As the fruit of that research didn’t seem to have a natural home and as William Crossman does have Roath ties, I thought why not post it here.  Thank you to the members of that U3A group for their efforts.

 

Albany Road and the 1911 census Suffragette protest

Who would have thought it that an e-cigarette shop in Albany Road was the centre of a Suffragette protest in 1911.  I’m certainly thinking this is going to be a candidate for one of our virtual Roath History plaques.

Cardiff and District Women's Suffrage Society banner, 1908

Cardiff and District Women’s Suffrage Society banner, 1908

Earlier this year I saw an exhibition at Cardiff Story Museum that explained the following:

In 1911 the Woman’s Freedom League (WFL) called for its members to ‘Boycott the Census’.  Their motto was ‘No votes for women, no information from women’.

 They declared ‘Any government that refuses to recognise women must be met by woman’s refusal to recognise the Government ……. we intend to do our best to make it [the census] unreliable and inaccurate

 Boycotters in Cardiff spent the night at 34 Albany Road, Roath. The census record for the premises reads ‘this is the shop where the local suffragettes spent the night of Sunday April 3rd 1911 in order to evade the census & on the authority of Mr R J Watkins, Superintendent Registrar, the estimated number was: Males 2, Females 15, Total 17’.

 The Western Mail reported that ‘it is definitely known that the number exceeded fifty’.

 

1911 Census for 34 Albany Road

Extract from 1911 census of 34 Albany Road, Roath, Cardiff.

Whilst the census boycott didn’t nullify the census results, it did focus the public’s attention on the suffragette movement and its campaign for ‘Votes for Women’.  The outbreak of war however somewhat slowed advancement of the suffragettes’ cause.

Eventually, after the First World War, Parliament passed the 1918 Qualification of Women Act which enabled women over the age of 30 who were either householders or married to a householder, or who held a university degree, to vote  It was not until the 1928 Representation of the People Act that women were granted the right to vote on the same terms as men.

 

Then last month Bernice Maynard posted on the ‘Cardiff Now & Then’ Facebook page a postcard of Edwards & Co Drapers in Albany Road and wondered if anybody knew where in Albany Road this shop used to be.  A number of people rose to the challenge and identified it as being  number 34 Albany Road, the very address where the suffragette protest had taken place.

34 Albany ROad, Roath, Cardiff, Postcard.

Edwards & Co Drapers had closed prior to 1911 and at the time of the census was lying vacant,  but the postcard probably still gives a good impression of what the premises looked like at the time. Today it is the Flavour Vapour e-cigarette shop.

Flavour Vapour, Albany Road, Cardiff

There were many responses to  Bernice’s post.  Someone shared a Western Mail newspaper article relating to the protest and someone pointed towards a copy of the 1911 census return for the premises. Many thanks to Bernice Maynard , Pat Allen, Jackie Lewis and others for sharing their research and to the ‘Cardiff Now & Then’ Facebook page.

The interesting newspaper article, supplemented with some pictures found elsewhere, follows below.

 

Suffragette Protest for the 1911 Census – WESTERN MAIL

Password of the Ladies
“ESCAPE FROM THE CENSUS IN CARDIFF.”
HOW A SECRET WAS WELL KEPT.
NIGHT IN UNTENANTED HOUSING.
EARLY MORNING CALL BY REGISTRAR.

None of the suffragettes who were successful in evading the census was prepared on Monday to give any hint as to the number who spent the night in the untenanted house in Albany Road, Cardiff. Reticence on this point was only to be expected for it was hardly likely that they would give any information which would nullify their all-night vigil.  It is definitely known however that the number exceeded fifty, and while the majority of them belonged to the Social and Political Union, some of the members of the Women’s Freedom League and the Cardiff and District Suffrage Society joined in the scheme. Those concerned displayed unrestrained delight that they had kept their plans a secret and had thus been able to “diddle the enumerators” and cheat the Registrar-General.

The story of the scheme was related in Monday’s Western Mail, but it was not known until the early morning where it was being carried out.  It transpires that Miss Barratt of Newport, acting on behalf of the Social and Political Union, had secured the use of commodious premises, part of which is a shop in Albany Road no 34.  The ladies turned up singly or in two’s during the evening and, in order not to create suspicion, they made their way to the premises through the back lane.  None was admitted until she had given the appropriate password “Escape.”
The night was spent in the sitting-rooms of the houses, where fires had been lit early in the evening. A large number of chairs had been secretly conveyed into the building, but those were nothing like sufficient for those who turned up, and many had to lay on the floors. They had, fortunately, taken the precaution of having a good supply of rugs, cushions and pillows.

During the night the ladies were visited by police officers, and one of the census enumerators handed two census forms to one of the ladies. These were however refused and the enumerator then threw the forms on the floor requesting that they should be properly filled up. The only reply he received was that they would not be touched and that they should have been delivered on Saturday.  The request of the enumerator was not complied with, and when the ladies left, between seven and eight o’clock in the morning- they did so in small batches – they had what satisfaction is afforded in believing that they had prevented a complete census of Cardiff’s citizens. They did not however return to their homes until late afternoon, and after having breakfast at various restaurants, they either took long walks in the country or spent their time in the Free Library.

One of the party told our reporter that the night was pleasantly spent, and none of them had the slightest cause to regret their attempt to “spoil the census.” Everybody she said, “brought a stock of refreshments. and, after our supper party we talked for hours, and when this morning was well advanced we played cards. It was certainly an interesting experience, and if it served to show the ludicrousness of shutting out of the Parliamentary franchise all of the women of the country well -we are satisfied.”

Votes for Women 1911 poster

Newspaper “Beds”

HOW THE LADIES SPENT THE NIGHT

Mrs Keating Hill, interviewed by a Western Mail reporter, described the scheme as “thoroughly interesting and more successful than we at first thought it would be.”

Asked how many turned up, Mrs Hill replied, “We were a large family of about – well, how many do you think? I really didn’t count them.”
Mrs Hill went on to relate how the night was spent. “Although we had before us the prospect of a night’s ‘dossing,’” she said, “everybody was in gay spirits, and the proceedings opened with a ‘reception.’  Then we had to divide forces, because we all could not possibly spend the night in the same room. Things were exceedingly comfortable. There were bright fires in the grates, and we had a plentiful supply of refreshments.  We had to be cautious in regard to light, as we knew police would be keeping a sharp look-out for us, but we had treated the window with whiting, and were able to burn candles with some amount of safety.  After midnight some of the party wrapped themselves up in their rugs and went to sleep, their ‘bed’ consisting of a newspaper spread on the floor.  Others preferred to do some crochet work.  In our room we were fortunate enough to have a clever fortune teller, and she provided an interesting entertainment and of course we talked for hours.”
“There were certainly some diverting incidents during the night.  We soon discovered that we were being ‘looked for,’ and occasionally men peered in through the front window.  Then of course we spoke in whispered tones, so as not to give the game up.  We could hear and thoroughly enjoyed the heated argument between a police officer and a gentleman who had been peeping into the shop, and who turned out to be a Western Mail man.  He was certainly well on the scent at that time, but had he continued knocking we should probably not have answered the door just then.”

Cardiff libraties

Photo: Cardiff Libraries

VISIT BY THE POLICE

“Later a couple of policemen came and hammered at the door, and demanded to know what we were doing on the premises.  ‘The occupier’ was adamant, and a policeman might just as well have endeavoured to get a tramcar to discuss philosophy as to question her.  Fancy, the police wanted to go through the door, but we would not allow them: and them came two more officers and a lady inspector, but it was all of no avail, and the census man who followed was met with no greater measure of success.”

“We all remained at the house until about seven o’clock, and as there were still some of the police about, and we did not want to give them the chance to count us, we had to watch our opportunity to get away.  We left in small batches and scattered in all directions.  We had a jolly picnic, and we believe we have done a service to the cause we advocate.  Some of the party had their first experience of hard suffragetting, and we are pleased to know that they are not in the least bit daunted.  They expressed themselves as being ready for greater hardships than that, so that the Government will experience more trouble than they have had before.”

a group of Welsh suffragettes departing from Cardiff to volunteer as nurses with the Serbian Army, sometime in 1

A group of Welsh suffragettes departing from Cardiff to volunteer as nurses with the Serbian Army, sometime in 1914 (Photo: Glamorgan Archives)

“SCHEME A COMPLETE SUCCESS”

The census dodging party included Miss Barratt of Newport, who is the organising secretary of the Women’s Social and Political Union for South Wales.  Seen by one of our reporters on Monday Miss Barratt remarked that the scheme had been a complete success, and that they had all spent a thoroughly enjoyable night.
“We certainly hadn’t a dull moment in the room I was in,” Miss Barratt went on, “and if we were not listening to entertaining discussions on the situation and the cause, we were able to watch some of the ladies playing their best trump cards in whist.  Of course we did not play cards on Sunday night- we waited for that until the early hours of Monday morning.”
Referring to the visits of the police, Miss Barratt said they appeared to be under the impressions that they had a right of entry to the house and would not credit that the building had been rented for two nights.  “They had no search warrant,” added Miss Barratt, “and of course they could not come in, especially as the person in charge explained that she was responsible for the conduct of the house.”
Miss Barratt stated in reply to a further query that the majority of the census evaders were educated women, and ranging in age from sixteen to 60. The number also included several married ladies.

Early Morning Call

REGISTRAR’S FRUITLESS VISIT TO ALBANY ROAD

On Monday afternoon one of our reporters interviewed Mr. Jack Taylor, registrar for East Cardiff, who has control of more than 30 enumerators.  Mr. Taylor was familiar with the hiding-place of the suffragettes.  It was he said, the shop and house, 34 Albany road, formerly in the occupation of a draper, and now vacant and to let.
“This morning,” he went on, “at two o’clock, I had some unexpected visitors in the person of Police-sergeant Wootton and Police constable Jack Hudson. They woke me up as registrar and reported that certain females were evading the census.  I got out of bed, and foreseeing certain difficulties, I prevailed upon my wife (who acts as my deputy) to accompany me in the hope that she might be able to identify at least some of the ladies.  We went together, and immediately I rang the bell three ladies came to the door. They carried ‘candle dips’. I asked one of them ‘Who is the head of the house?’ and she said ‘I am,’ but as it was past twelve, she in answer to my inquiries, refused any information.
“Were the police with you?”
“they were outside listening. I asked the ladies for their names, but as the schedules had not been served upon them before twelve they declined to give their Christian or surnames. I did not know them, and I should not know them again, neither do I know how many were in the house, but those I saw were well dressed.  One of the three retired.  I served each of the two remaining with a schedule, but they still declined information. I read to them the section under which they are liable to a forfeiture of £5 each.  All they said was that they were advised not to give their names or addresses because the enumerator had not served them with schedules before twelve.”
“That being so , will they be able to escape the penalty?”
“Certainly not,” answered Mr. Taylor, with emphasis. He added that at half past eleven on Sunday night some ladies were seen to enter the house in Albany Road and at twenty minutes past twelve the police reported the admission of three others.  The officers rang the bell.  The trio made a move towards the door but did not open it.  Mr Taylor will report the facts to the Registrar general.

 

“GONE TO CARDIFF TO EVADE THE CENSUS.”

A prominent gentleman in the neighbourhood of Cardiff has a daughter who is an enthusiastic supporter of the cause, and this young lady was one of those- chiefly school mistresses and assistant teachers – who passed Sunday night in the house in Albany Road. Her name and all the required details had been included in the schedule at home but immediately her father learned of the cause of her absence he put the pen through the name and wrote: ”Gone to Cardiff to evade the census.” The gentleman informs us that a good scolding awaited the young lady on her return on Monday morning.
One person only was found by the police wandering aimlessly about Cardiff streets on Sunday night and was enumerated as one of the homeless.

Women's_Suffrage_Pilgrimage_in_Cathays_Park,_Cardiff_1913

Women’s Suffrage Pilgrimage in Cathays Park Cardiff in 1913 (Cardiff Libraries)

A Voice From The Inside.

HOW THE NIGHT WAS SPENT IN ALBANY ROAD
(By one who was present)

Late on the eventful night, along a convenient and little known back street, we approached the House of secret Abode. from the other end of the street’s dimness three forms approached, grotesque shapes gradually becoming outlined into the figures of three women, rugs and bundles, panier-like at their sides.
“Can they be some of us and don’t know the way to it? Shall I ask?”
“Better not,” my companion cautioned. “Perhaps it’s a trap.”
With furtive glances we passed them by. With equally furtive glances they passed us by; when “It must be,” said I, and turning after them called, “Are you a _?”
“ Yes we are!” came the prompt rejoinder, chorused in unmistakable relief. “Oh where is it? We don’t know where to go, and we are afraid to go anywhere.”
“Come along; it’s quite close now. But we must divide.”

So in twos, we dived through the little door, that opened noiselessly and readily at our approach into the garden, and then, with many stumbles and “Hushes,” into the House of Secret Abode, giving vent to a sigh of relief that at last we were safely inside.
Already there was a good crowd of us. From the ”reception-rooms,” sumptuous with a fire, one table and a clean floor, we overflowed into the “bedrooms,” to deposit our rugs in their bareness and select our planks for the night. In many rooms were already stretched on the planks they had chosen prostrate forms, occasioning – for “No Lights” was the order of the House – much stumbling stifled “Oh’s,” and suppressed laughter.
“What’s that? Hush! Oh,” with relief, “It’s only gravel thrown at a window. It’s one of us – she can’t find the way in, Quick; fetch her in or she’ll give us away.”
Gradually all were got safely in, the stealthy tramping to the bedrooms ceased and all sounds died down.
Thunder, thunder, bang –crash!
“Good heavens!” and with the shock of it the floor seemed to depart from our shoulders, and like marionettes on strings we sat up with a jerk.
“Will you open the door?” Bang, bang, “Open the door, I say,” and the impatient hammering began again.
“It’s the police. They’ve found us. Oh!”
Then footsteps were heard hurrying down: the door opened, the voice of She Who Resisted for Us raised in altercation, alternately heard and drowned in the two angry voices of someone who must surely be two huge, angry policemen. Doors were stealthily opened, and from each issued a bold spirit, to hang in darkness over banisters and report in hurried whispers what she heard.
“They want to come in. They want to search the house … They say they will come in … She won’t let them. No, she won’t – protests they have not the right. Oh,” with a gasp that made us all lie back with one accord – flop. “They are coming, I do believe.” And our particular bolder spirit hounded back into our room and fell over all of us in turn in her hurry to hide herself in her rug.
“What will they do?” was asked.
“They can’t do anything,” we all stoutly agreed.
A footstep on the stairs. Coward hearts thumped wildly. “Oh, it’s only one,” And then the re-assuring vision, behind a shaded candle, of Her Who Resisted.
“They have gone to get a warrant to search the house. Mind, answer no questions: give no names: just say you are my guests.”
With a shriek of inextinguishable laughter at the thought of the luxurious accommodation we “guests” had had provided for us, we buried our heads in our rugs till the excitement subsided into harmless gurgles and gasps.
Two hours of suspense. Every creak an alarm: every step in that uncarpeted house the loud step of what we feared. But gradually fear and wakefulness faded, and all rested, save the cricket down in the garden that chirped the night cheerfully away.
W-h-i-r-r-r-r-r, and a bell like twenty alarums for suddenness and violence rang and rang.
“Sh-sh-sh, keep perfectly quiet,” floated up the word from below. Then voices again, not angry, but – argumentative. Snatches were audible:
“Well, I admire you for ——“
“Oh, girls, it’s all right,” came a stifled voice: “he admires us.”
“Well, they won’t, if they come up and see us looking like this.”
Then again silence till the word came up –
“It’s all right. We’re safe.”
Then that House of Stealthy Steps and Stifled Voices became the House of Babel . Doors were flung open, and we trooped out and down the bare stairs to hear what She Who Resisted had to tell.
“Three policemen, a woman, and the enumerator. Yes, positively. But I refused to take the papers in, and, look, they have had to drop them on the floor. And they are gone. They haven’t the right to search.”
“Who wants to give three cheers?” sang out a voice. “No, no, the neighbours. Hush! Now to sleep, and then in the morning we must be up and out before they come for the papers.”
So it was done. Soon after dawn a hasty toilet, assembly downstairs, outer door opened, and we filed silently over the dropped census papers out into the street. And, hey, pronto! We are gone: nameless ones, melted away, no one knows where.
Along my way later dashed a taxi, windows full of fares smiling at me, of hands waving at me, the last batch of the comrades of that unforgettable night – “The rummiest night I’ve ever spent,” as one had quaintly remarked.
And what, after all, is behind it? Not fun, not laughter, not rumminess. Ah, no. It is the spirit of rebellion that is abroad, in growing earnestness and passionate desire for justice and freedom: it is the awakening in women of a new feeling of collective consciousness, of high responsibility for others. And he who reads aright the signs of the time sees therein a tremendous force for good making a higher civilisation, wherein the womanly qualities shall have direct sway in the molding of the nobler race of the future.

End

 

More information on the protests in Cardiff at the time is detailed here